As the process of development and establishment of a scientific paradigm that is described by the cognitive approach and formed of transition towards a deep knowledge and stud of objective-cognitive activity, processes of perception and thinking that are represented in our mind takes place nowadays, ideas and concepts of oral manipulating in modern cognitive science are described by new setting-cognitive principles that are typical for the cognitive direction.
Basic concepts of the essence of manipulation in politic communication, its fundamental ideas in cognitive science are studied in works of a number of Russian and foreign scientists (N.D. Arutyunova, V.N. Bazylev, A.N. Baranov, Y.N. Karaulov, E. Kassirer, E.S. Kubrjakova, A.P. Chudinov, E. Bern, P. Bourdieu, I.L. Derkacheva, E.L. Dotsenko, S. Kara-Murza, D. Myers, P. Ekman, R. Bart, K.H. Kalandarov, E.I. Chubukova, and others).
Urgency of the topic of this research is defined by a necessity to set a level of suggestive influence in a politic discussion, determine means and methods or oral influence upon the mind of language speakers that will allow politically-active citizens to define motives of political acts and form a critical approach towards political claims in mass media.
Claims of Russian politicians and pre-election slogans of Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, American political discourse served as an object of the research.
The subject of the research is forming a mechanism of manipulative model within political narrative through the hierarchy of needs.
Texts of political discourse served as materials of the research. During the work more than 500 manipulative concepts located in more than 200 texts have been analysed. The studied texts bear a propagandistic nature as they are characterized by an influencing direction that consists of forming a definite level of perception of information among their audience.
The objective of studying methods of influencing a recipient in political texts is to analyse a suggestive potential of political communication.
To study a level of influencing direction of a political discourse we have facilitated the descriptive-analytical method and its means: observation, interpretation, classification. As suggestion we see a process of influencing a recipient’s mind, his feelings, and will that is linked to a decrease in conscious analyticity and criticality under the impact of the received information [4, p. 218]. «The objective of a democratic society is to provide an opportunity for all its members to form a readiness to act on purpose. Within the environment of the same language, readiness for such a powerful sensual perception depends on the influence of literature upon a certain social group and a certain person» [1, p. 95]. The same can be said regarding an impact of any text generally, as every text contains an informative and an influential component. In the language of politics, the method of playing motives is the most widespread method of achieving a manipulative effect.
This method consists of an implacability of psychological influence upon a recipient via activation of his basic needs. Applying to inner motives of people’s acts allows one to control mind, feelings, behavior reactions, and life settings of a speaker/listener, defines a person’s attitude towards a presented candidate of a party. Authors of political texts determine basic needs of a person, and with these needs an influence upon their electorate becomes the most efficient. In this case, an implied conclusion of the manipulation is a selection of a corresponding party or a candidate for a political position. Generally, application to basic motives to act consists of the structure that has been introduced by A.N. Leontiyev [2, p. 273]: Need – Motive – Acts – Result. Realization of an unsatisfied need forms a motive that defines a direction of acts, aimed to achieve a suggested result. In other words, a motive serves as a stimulus to carry out certain actions through realizing needs.
In a great variety of motives of acts an author of a political text basically applies to only one of them that proves to be the most influential in a certain context. A manipulator’s objective is that «in case of cognitive dissonance a person should select … a suggested solution» [5, p. 37].
The process of influence upon the electorate mind obtains its greatest efficiency if the a message points to dissatisfaction of a certain need in order to encourage it to act. Therefore, in orders set a sensual motive of a political act, a copyrighter of political texts should orient fluently in the hierarchy of needs and values.
Resting upon the hierarchy of needs, introduced by A. Maslow [3, p. 111], we will study how this tactic is realized in political texts:
Physiological needs (hunger, thirst). Their most important feature is that in case one of them is unsatisfied, it becomes prior, and the whole activity of a person is submitted to it. For example: «Do not dream. They don’t share. By all means, come to the election and vote for any party, but not for the «Unite Russia». – the slogan of the opposition before the election for the State Duma of 2011 is supplied with a place with red caviar on it and a bear paw print the caviar (the bear is symbol of the «Unite Russia»). Applying to the fear of hunger served as a basis of pre-election anti-slogan at the background of portrait of G. Zyuganov: «Buy your food for the last time!» – slogan of democrats in the presidential campaign of 1996.
Need for self-preservation (meaning health, physical and economic safety). Primarily this need is actualized in political texts of pre-election campaigns. For example, in certain cases representatives of the state tend to dissociate with campaigns ad products that use official ideology of campaigns and products: «The first vice-premier Sergey Ivanov has advised citizens of Russia not to trust commercials with the word «nana». As S. Ivanov has reported at the meeting of governmental council of nanotechnologies, recently, advertising products with usage of the word «nano» had started on television: anti-corrosion materials called «nanozinc», perfumery product «nanocream». According to the first vice-premier, «cunning merchants and advertisers have took the popular word into operation and, in fact, started to fool citizens» (Rus Business Consulting, 18.12.2007); opponents of president V. Putin play with an occasional origin of his second name that is similar to the verb «drown» (potonut’), claiming that the country goes to the bottom with V. Putin: «What has happened to Russia? It has drowned». «Leaders of orange lepra». (With the manes of Nemtsov, Kasparov, Navalniy, Sobchak) – the slogan warns people that the listed political activists are not to be trusted as they are linked to ambiguous reformations in Ukraine. «A big country votes. For life, for people. Participation in the election is your chance to influence the country’s policy. Come and vote!» – Slogans of the Central election commission of the election of deputies of the State Duma of Russian Federation of December 4th 2011 that underline the necessity of an independent election of political representatives for preservation of life foundations.
Need for love (including affection towards someone, spiritual closeness, self-identification with someone) is displayed only in case the first two levels of needs are satisfied (as well as the following ones). It is usually realized in political advertisement as pictures of happy spouses, children, whose prosperity is determined by their choice. Voting for a candidate who is announced in such political advertisement, a person tends to receive same emotions, be confine about his future. A man projects this picture on himself and wants to be happy and prosperous, etc. Usually, a picture is supplied with the corresponding slogans. For example, the slogan of the march of millions in May 2012 claimed: «Putin loves everyone!»; «A happy man – a happy country», – claim patriots of Russia.
Need for respect (realized in the sense of own dignity, prestige, social approval). It is majorly displayed in need for a high self-estimation that includes confidence of one’s own powers, independence, professional mastership and success, sufficient life level (sense of inside, sense of one’ own self) or need for a high reputation, professional prestige, a good name (sense of outside, from the position of social surroundings). For example: «Together we are Belarus! A state for the people. Belarus is the country where one wants to live!» – pre-election slogans of A. Lukashenko, candidate for the president of Belarus, modern president, 2010. «Strong Belarus is for free people. The time has come to give Belarus back to the people!» – pre-election slogans of A. Sannikov, candidate for the president of Belarus, coordinator of the civil campaign «European Belarus». The need for respect in slogans of V. Zhirinovskiy and LDPR is expressed through appellation to national self-consciousness: «For Russia! For the Russian! For LDPR! Together with Russian nation! With the nation of right! God is with us!» The need for respect is also reflected in beliefs into the significance of each voter in pre-election slogans of Barak Obama: «The power of one voice. If one voice can change A ROOM than it can change A CITY. If it can change a city than it can change A STATE. If it can change a state than it can change A NATION. If it can change a nation than it can change THE WORLD».
The need for self-assertion (displays in self-realization, self-expression, creation of one’s own, unique image, style). For example, within a speech in 2012 V. Putin underlines: «It is extremely important for us to define the right priorities, efficiently enable factors that will provide for a stable innovative growth in a long-term perspective, increase competitiveness of Russia»; in his pre-election speech of 2008 D. Medvedev claims: «Our objective is organize not several large enterprises in Russia – that would not be an ambitious objective, but a complete community – nanotechnological sector. All business directions should be represented in it – private and state enterprises, up to transnational companies». In their speeches Political leaders underline the significance of political actions, promising an efficient and fruitful development of a state. «A great leader to the great country! A worthy future to the great country!» Pre-election slogan of Vladimir Putin of 2012 expresses the need to confirm a uniqueness of his political program. An urge for self-assertion is expressed in promise to close up with European states in slogans of V. Yuschenko at the elections of 2010 «For the European choice! For prosperous Ukraine! Let Ulkaine be!»
Thus, political texts, especially political advertisement always consider basic human needs that are applied to by politicians. An author of a political text tends to outline basic needs of a recipient that exist in mind of the majority, and forms a new one. Then he suggests one of the possible means of satisfying this need that will be linked to buying an advertised product. The nature of this tactic is actualizing a need and putting one sensual motive of choice and further presentation of it within a certain advertising text.
Библиографическая ссылкаSirivlja M.A. METHODS OF INFLUENCE ON RECIPIENT IN POLITICAL TEXTS // Международный журнал экспериментального образования. – 2013. – № 12. – С. 49-51;
URL: http://expeducation.ru/ru/article/view?id=4289 (дата обращения: 07.08.2020).