In the apt definition Akhmet Baitursynuly, «language – a powerful force both for and degeneration of the nation. The people who did not keep his word, and he disappears» . The development of any language as a living organism, its improvement is closely linked to the number of its speakers, who consider this as their native language, it is widely used in various fields of communication. A number of speakers depends, first, on the quantitative and qualitative composition of the nations, and secondly, on the language policy of the state where the given ethnic group lives. The latter provision clearly reflected in Russia’s policy towards other nations.
From the middle of the nineteenth century in the Russian Empire intensified policy of Russification of representatives of other nationalities. Education and training has been associated with the promotion of orthodoxy. In this direction succeeded such renowned educators as N.I. Ilminsky, A.E. Alektorov, A.V. Vasiliev. Particularly important is the role N.I. Ilminsky . They are attracted to children of indigenous nationalities in the Russian school. Graduates of these schools are great personalities: D. Banzarov, Sh. Ualihanov, Y. Altynsarin. Everywhere open Russian-otherwise school textbooks are published, even created the national alphabets based on Cyrillic letters. Thus, according to K. Kuderina, the first Kazakh alphabet, based on the Russian alphabet, created by N.I. Ilminsky . N.I. Ilminsky designated the specific sounds of the Kazakh language graphically Titley. Remarkably, he did not include the Kazakh Russian alphabet letters е, в, и, ф, ц, х, ч, щ, ъ, ь, э, ю, я . But this alphabet was not accepted by the local population. Then an attempt was made by the hands of the introduction of the alphabet natives. In fact, it embodies Y. Altynsarin – he created the first Kazakh Cyrillic alphabet, wrote a textbook on it , established the first Russian-Kazakh school. So held the language policy of the Russian empire in relation to the alphabet.
In opposition to such a policy at the beginning of the twentieth century created «dzhadditsky» (new) current of russian Muslims led by I. Gasprinsky. They are reforming used by the Arabic alphabet, complementing its graphical notation of sounds of a national language. The old methods of learning are replaced by new ones. Among the Kazakhs this technique is called the letter «төте жазу (tote zhazu)» (literally «direct, quick email»). In the years 1907–1914 were published 7–8 variants of the first Kazakh alphabet . Besides these, there were hand-written alphabet books. For example, the manuscript of the alphabet, written by Mullah Kokpay. At the moment, it is stored in the collections of the National Library. But the most systematic, sustained graphically recognized A. Baytursynuly option . The magazine «Aikap» (1911–1914) for the purpose of valuation of the Kazakh graphics publishes articles on options alphabets, creates a serious wide-ranging discussion on the subject. In solving the problem of actively participating A.Baytursynov detail justify its graphics system. His alphabet from 1912 is widely distributed in the country and is in use by the end of the 20s. According to the alphabet still enjoy the Kazakhs of China. It is a clear expression of opposition to the policy of Russification of education.
Those who came to power in 1917, the Soviets also impartially continued policy of Russification. In the first decade of Soviet power to create certain conditions for the development of national languages. So, after the revolution, during the formation of the Soviet government formed by the People’s Commissariat of the nation, headed by Stalin. «Declaration of the Rights of Peoples of Russia» on 15 November 1917 proclaims the mutual equality of the nation, in the decree № 2 All-Russian Central Executive Committee (ARCEC) and the Council of People’s Commissars (CPC) on February 15, 1918 decided that in all instances of judicial proceedings will be used by all the local languages .
Of particular importance to the development of local national languages attached IV Stalin. He wrote: «There is no mandatory» state «language – either in the proceedings or in the school». Each region will select the language or languages that correspond to the composition of its population, and will be complete equality of minority languages as well as in all public and political institutions [8, 70].
People’s Commissariat of Russia (Commissariat) passed a resolution «On the school of small nations» from November 31, 1918. In 1919, at the VIII Congress of the RCP (b) refers to the need for a unified labor school with the national language of instruction. As a result, in 1921 in Turkestan (Central Asia) begin teaching in national languages, including and the Kazakh [9, 31]. In March of this year, the Kazakh Central Executive Committee (CRC) decide that all its members should as soon as possible to learn the Kazakh language [10, 28].
In 1922 he created the Central Eastern Publishing, the publisher of literature in the languages of the peoples of Central Asia, based on the national charts. For the purpose of mastering the Marxist-Leninist ideology of every people in their native language, Russian and indeed the whole world artistic and political literature translated into local languages.
All of these primary policies have served to strengthen the image power among the peoples of the USSR. By the end of the 20th years of the last century, the political course changes drastically – starts Romanization (translation of the Latin script), the languages of the Union Republics. As the V.V. Bazarova, in carrying out this policy, an important role was played by the authority of the Company’s new alphabet and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the special support of the state [11, 58]. The author also notes the direct participation of Stalin: «Attention is drawn to the fact that Stalin did not leave large documents that would touch his direct involvement in the reform of writing. However, the large amount of material that was more fully represented in the debate on linguistics in the post-war years, suggests that these issues are actively engaged in it» [11, 58].
Not informed about the background of the language policy – switching to Russian and orthography – Soviet Turks were preparing for latinization
In 1928, at a meeting in Baku were presented and studied projects alphabets-Latin script for each of the Soviet Turkic republics. Kazakh project schedules, consisting of 28 letters, was presented to a group led by O. Zhandosov. The project is hotly discussed in 1929 at a conference in Kyzyl-Orda T. Shonanuly, E. Omarov, K. Kemengerov, K. Zhubanov, E.D. Polivanov etc. Then he (the project), improving, became include 29 letters . This option is based on the Arabic alphabet A. Baytursynuly, 20 years selflessly served for Kazakh society . Alphabet A. Baytursynuly once created taking into account phonemathic Kazakh language and has been recognized not only as fellow scientists, but also with foreign counterparts. So, E.D. Polivanov particularly noted: «This last form, which took a Cossack-Kyrgyz schedule in 1924, I was in any case, I think not needing as amended and represents the latest step in the historical formation of national schedules, which can be fully Kyrgyz officials proud of Education – creators of the reform as a major cultural conquest» [14, 32].
As a result of this policy, all the nations of the Soviets, except Russian, Georgians, Armenians went to Latin.
In 1929, in connection with the transition to the Latin alphabet in Kazakhstan was held spelling reform. Recognized the fundamental position expressed in the textbook A. Baytursynuly «Tiл – құрaл (Language – means)»  as well as the views expressed in the First All-Russian Congress of Turkic studies in Baku. At the Congress, in its report on the nomenclature system, noted the discrepancy A. Baytursynuly nature of the Kazakh language pronunciation of the words of European origin: «That’s why we’re going to take foreign words in such a way that it was easy for the pronunciation of the Cossacks. Similarly, other Turkic peoples should not be considered as the origin of words, and should be considered a dialect, the articulation of the population» [15, 277]. So he insisted on writing borrowed words according to the spelling of the local language.
About the spelling of foreign vocabulary H. Dosmuhameduly in 1924 said the following: «The peoples of Europe using the Latin words as terms do not leave them in their original form, and are tailored to articulating the basis of their language. The word is subject to change in accordance with the laws of their native language» [16, 95]. One of the supporters of this trend E. Omaruly in the same year in Orenburg to the First Congress of the Kazakh intelligentsia suggested: «If the word that expresses the concept of a particular branch of knowledge, is not in their native language, you can use their Latin equivalents. But the alien vocabulary should be subject to the ranks of the native language» [17, 97]. Most of the Kazakh intelligentsia at that time supported this point of view, moreover, still no pressure to write borrowed through the Russian language words in Kazakh – due to these factors in 1929 in Kyzyl-Orda officially fixed spelling rules, on which is written in a foreign language vocabulary according to the phonemic system of the Kazakh language. As exemplified by the work of a researcher Latin spelling by N. Amirzhanova, written in that year [18, 190–195].
The idea Turkic-speaking peoples of the Soviet Union through the transition to the Latin alphabet to create a common script, set the close ties among themselves and unite the Turkic world, to form a unified literary language remained relevant in the first decade of Soviet power. However, as Western scholars, the implementation of these tasks was initially impossible. The Turks at that time were well aware of each other, despite the specificity of each language, yet the difference in economic and cultural development would be unable to contribute to their convergence [19, 8]. As was confirmed in further Soviet language policy.
Before 1938, the loan words were written in Latin, «Kazakh»: «сатсыйализм», «сатсыйалист», «кәмүніс», «балшабек», «репорма», «сәбет», «пебырал», «сабнарком», «пұртакол» and etc. Since 1938, according to the amendments to the Regulations of 10 paragraph reads: «the words that have become distorted due to the lack of them in our vocabulary, and will now be spelled correctly, denoted by the letter consonant sounds х, ф, в». For example, the norms are хат, хан, химия, фазыл, вагон, совет. Not allowed to write «Қат, қан, қыймыйа, пазыл, вәгөн, сәбет» [18, 97].
When, in 1940 under the influence of national political forces in the zone of the USSR passed Cyrillic S. Amanzholov was compiled and reigning alphabet, complete with Russian letters, previously unavailable in the Kazakh language. That, in turn, contributed to the introduction to the language rules that are alien to the laws of its development. Distorted, it’s incredibly complicated spelling. For this reason, several processed spelling dictionaries (1940, 1957, 1978, 1983) [20, 7]. The last option – «Spelling Dictionary», approved by the State Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan terminology and adopted in 2006 .
During this period, many scientific works of famous Kazakh linguists, praising our «hybrid» mixed alphabet and spelling. They talked about the favorable impact of the Russian language on the modern possibilities of the native language, able to pronounce and write any foreign word [22, 23, 199–205, 24, 48, 25, 22, etc.]. Imbedded common rules in unrelated languages led to numerous footnotes (exceptions) in the language of law. Deal with this problem have dedicated their work N. Ualiev and A. Aldasheva .
The protection of the nature of language arose many scholars. Thus, long-term scientific creativity S. Myrzabekova updated the need to preserve the vowel harmony of the Kazakh language . A. Zhunisbekov first openly wrote about the negative phonetic processes in the native language [28, 24]. In one of his works, he says, «sounds are not related and are not identical with the Kazakh language Russian language, first of all, have dramatically increased the number of sounds in the first. Secondly, it was a lot of words that do not obey the law of vowel harmony. Third, become complicated spelling. All this is only the main effects of interference Russian language» [29, 12]. Eliminate the negative effects can be only one-way substitution alphabet. In the words of Professor A. Zhunisbek «... replacement of the alphabet do not have to be regarded as a rejection of a particular language or script, I repeat, is a graphical reform of the Kazakh language» [30, 7].
This reform begins with the design of the Latin alphabet. Currently represented by more than 100 varieties, among the authors of the Kazakh Diaspora and foreign-language specialists . Development can be divided into three groups. The first focuses on the extended (with over – and subscript characters) Latin, aims to create a common Turkic graphics ( A. Zhunisbek, etc.). The second sticking to the principle of «one sound one character» uses for the sounds, the designation of which is not on your keyboard, diacritical signs (R. Abdykadyrov, etc.). The third group uses the basic Latin alphabet characters, and for those that are not included on the keyboard uses the doubled characters
(A. Sharipbay, etc.). The last two lines are aimed at flawless use of computer programs. It is known that in the modern Kazakh alphabet has all the letters of the Russian language. This explains the different number of sound symbols represented in the new versions of the alphabets. Some authors (A. Zhunisbek, B. Kantarbayuly ) offer a limited 28 signs that indicate specific sounds Kazakhs. Other ( M. Malbakuly, A. Sharipbay ) supporters 31 – character alphabet that includes a foreign language ф, x, в.
Spelling is closely related to a pronunciation. In connection with this provision, there is an inconsistency between projects 28 and 31 – letter alphabet. First for the restoration of native pronunciation norms of the Kazakh language and therefore suggests to get rid of borrowed sounds ф, x, в. Consequently, foreign words will be written like this: халық – қалық, фабрика – пабрика or пәбрике, вагон – багон or уагон. Last for the preservation of sounds х, ф, в. Its orthograms look like this: халық – халық, фабрика – фабрика or фәбрике, вагон – вагон or багон.
Among the supporters of the preservation of alien sounds of many eminent specialists of the Kazakh language. The main arguments of the majority of Russian linguists are terms that sounds, ф, x, have taken root in the language, articulation adapted. Therefore, new alphabet they should be.
Thus being offered two solutions to the problem: the first – to limit specific to the 28 letters of the Kazakhs and write how to pronounce the native Kazakh, the second – to leave in the foreign-language «ф, x, в» and save the modern spelling. Despite the apparent contradiction, both projects provide a spelling reform. It is needed for the sake of creation for the younger generation of the national alphabet and development language norms.
The article considered original graphics of the Kazakh language, and shows the influence of the Soviet Union’s policy on the development of it. Presented spelling principles sound system transition Kazakh language to the Latin script. In 1938 borrowed words were written in the Latin alphabet «in Russian». In 1940, under the influence of national political forces of the USSR zone moved to the Cyrillic alphabet was compiled and reigning alphabet, complete with Russian letters, previously unavailable in the Kazakh language. That, in turn, contributed to the introduction to the language rules that are alien to the laws of its development. Distorted, it’s incredibly complicated spelling. For this reason, several times processed spelling dictionaries. In 1929, in connection with the transition to the Latin alphabet in Kazakhstan was held spelling reform. Recognized the fundamental position expressed in the textbook of A. Baytursynuly and he noted the discrepancy nature of the Kazakh language pronunciation of the words of European origin. So he insisted on writing borrowed words according to the spelling of the local language. At present, the Kazakh language uses the Cyrillic alphabet in Kazakhstan, are discussing whether the return to Latin and Kazakh linguists link to solve this problem with spelling principles.
Библиографическая ссылкаIskhan B.J., Dautova S.B., Ospanova B.R. LANGUAGE POLICY AND THE KAZAKH ALPHABET // Международный журнал экспериментального образования. – 2014. – № 4-2. – С. 44-47;
URL: http://expeducation.ru/ru/article/view?id=5082 (дата обращения: 25.01.2020).