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Международный журнал экспериментального образования

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Formation of cognitive interest of pupils of rural schools

Zhirkova Z.S. 1
1 North-Eastern Federal university named after M.K. Ammosov
In this article the problem of development of cognitive interest as natural aspiration of pupils to knowledge is considered. Results of long-term tracking of level of formation of development of cognitive interest of pupils of initial classes of rural school are generalized and factors of development of interest in the doctrine are revealed. The created cognitive interest of pupils makes active not only informative processes, but also creative incentive efforts of pupils in various spheres of activity
cognitive interest
activity
knowledge
condition
educational process
independence
activity
result
1. Zhirkova Z.S. Social and pedagogical bases of improvement of activity of schools of small peoples of the North. Yakutsk, 1998. – 180 p.
2. Kostayeva T.V. To a question of research of steady cognitive interest of pupils. – 2004. – 118 p.
3. Kulyutkin Yu.N., Sukhobskya G.S. Motivation of cognitive activity. – SPb., 2002. – 98 p.
4. Popova O.V. Sistem of activity of the teacher on development of cognitive interest. [Electronic resource] http://festival.1september.ru/articles/528268/.

The thorough scientific base for research of development of cognitive interest as natural aspiration of pupils to knowledge is opened in Ya.A. Komensky’s, K.D. Ushinsky`s, D. Locke`s, Russo`s works, etc. P.Ya. Galperin, G.A. Zuckerman, L.A. Wenger, D.B. Elkonin, V.V. Davydov, etc.brought a certain contribution in studying of cognitive interest and its activity. Modern domestic teachers and psychologists Zankov L.V., Telnova Zh.N., Schukina G.I., Lozovaya V.I. emphasize relevance of studying of features of cognitive activity and ways of its activization at younger pupils.

Researches of I.G. Morozova, G.I. Schukina, T.A. Kulikova revealed that the cognitive interest isn’t immanently inherent in the person from the birth, it develops in the course of activity of the person, is formed in social conditions of his existence. T.V. Kostayeva notes that “it is possible to call cognitive interest in the most general definition the selective activity of the person on knowledge of subjects, phenomena, events of world around intensifying mental processes, activity of the person, his informative opportunities” [2, p. 118].

Educational process is a set of teaching and educational process (activity of the teacher) in unity with educational and informative and self-educational process (activity trained). The purpose of educational process is creation of conditions for development of informative activity of trainees. Realization of the purposes provides development of cognitive interests, ways of activity, the emotional sphere, humane and strong-willed qualities of the personality [4].

We will stop on results of long-term tracking of level of formation of development of cognitive interest of pupils of initial classes of rural school. According to Yu.N. Kulyutkin and G.S. Sukhobskaya, the cognitive interest on the way of the development is characterized by informative activity, an obvious selective orientation of subjects, valuable motivation in which the major place is taken by informative motives which promotes penetration of the personality into essential communications, the relations, regularity of knowledge [3].

The main FSES of the second generation is the personal result of training, education of the child therefore important part of our research is development of cognitive interest of pupils. Development of informative activity of pupils demands recomprehension of the major elements of training as the contents, forms, methods and technologies. The strategic direction of development of cognitive interest of trainees is creation of psychological and pedagogical conditions which will allow to develop the different parties of activity at the pupil: intellectual, personal, social.

We together with teachers, directors of schools, students – probationers of rural schools of Ust-Yansky, Verkhoyansk, Momsky, Aldan and Tomponskyuluses of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) carried out questioning of pupils of initial classes for the purpose of an assessment of expressiveness of informative activity according to A.A. Gorchinskaya’s test “Informative activity of the younger school student”. The form of the standardized questionnaire consists of five questions, having possible versions of answers (table 1).

Table 1

Indicators of expressiveness of informative activity of pupils of initial classes

Groups

Оnly

students

Strong expressiveness of informative activity

Moderate

expressiveness of informative activity

Weak

expressiveness of informative activity

Entrance diagnostics in the stating stage

189

69–37 %

111–58,5 %

9–4,6 %

Control

94

32–34,1 %

56–60 %

6–5,8 %

Experimental

94

38–40 %

53–56,6 %

3–3,3 %

These tables testify that at the stating experiment investigation phase in control group was revealed that strong expressiveness of informative activity is observed at 37 % of pupils, moderate expressiveness of informative activity – 58,5 %, weak expressiveness of informative activity – 4,6 %.

Investigating a problem of formation of cognitive interest of pupils, we found out that novelty of the content of material, practical need, variety of forms of independent work, creative approach to the organization of activity of pupils and own activity of the teacher, encouragement of creativity, an initiative, independence of pupils, creation of an emotional tone of activity, and also, use of active forms of education, methods and receptions which form motives of activity, resistant cognitive interests of need for self-education are one of factors of development of interest in the doctrine. Results indicate positive changes of expressiveness of cognitive interest of pupils: strong expressiveness of informative activity increased to 40 %, moderate expressiveness of informative activity – 57 %, weak expressiveness of informative activity decreased to 3 %.

Main customers of quality of education and participants of educational process are parents of pupils. The summary table “Satisfaction of Participants of Educational Process by Various Parties is made according to results of questioning” (table 2).

Table 2

Summary table of results of questioning “Satisfaction of participants of educational process by various parties”

Participants of educational process in experiment

Satisfaction with the activity party ( %)

Satisfaction with organizationalparty ( %)

Satisfaction with a social psychological aspect ( %)

Satisfaction with the administrative party ( %)

General satisfaction( %)

Pupils (241)

83,9

77,9

88

84,9

89

Teachers (78)

93,7

82

91,2

78,6

83,9

Parents (101)

85,6

85,2

94,6

87,9

90,1

According to results of the final table, it is possible to note the following:

– high level of satisfaction with four parties of teaching and educational process: pupils, teachers and parents (high level is equal 70 % and above);

– high quality shows also small distinction between indicators of satisfaction with educational process of pupils and teachers;

– success of use of variable technologies of training, they provide needs of pupils and parents of quality education;

– purposeful work of pedagogical collective and administration on development and improvement of teaching and educational process.

Also the level and quality of performance of independent creative works was investigated. Writing of creative works promotes development of interests, intellectual growth of pupils, pride of overcoming of difficulties, and, above all, gives belief in the forces, promotes further self-improvement. A conclusion that for development of creative abilities it is necessary to improve both logical and figurative thinkingreceived in psychology/Ribot, R. Meyli/represents the great interest .

It is known that all abilities are developed in activity. Tracking of results was carried out by means of different techniques: performance of examinations, an exhibition of independent creative works (pupilschoosesubjects, the direction), drawings, a portfolio, pedagogical reception “an imagination binomial” of D. Rodari, tests for identification of level of skill to communicate, the general outlook; the specifying conversations with pupils, teachers and parents [1]. Results of research are given below (table 3).

Only 305 pupils of rural schools of the third – the fourth classes, from them 76 pupils of nomadic schools were captured by Inspection. Defining a level of quality of creative works, the commission was guided by the following criteria: creative level – independent application of the knowledge gained from different sources, planning, making the assumption, the relation of the pupil, independent implementation of a reflection is brightly expressed; the advanced level – finding of the necessary information, its analysis, application of the knowledge acquired independently from the textbook or other sources recommended by the teacher to make the assumption by means of the teacher or others, ability to carry out a reflection;the basic – a choice from versions of information, use of the ready purpose and planning of the activity offered by the teacher, performance of independent work on the offered plan of the teacher or others, ability to reflexby means of the teacher ; the critical – poorly expressed psychological readiness for independent, creative work, a superficial statement of material, activity of reproductive type is observed. Other indicators – literacy of oral and written language, its wealth and others at determination of quality aren’t taken into account, they are considered where it is about quality of assimilation of the training program. Independent creative works on Russian – the composition at the choice of the pupil are checked for subjects: “My family”, “Our native village”, “A deer – beauty and pride of the North”, “my Homeland”, “Occupations of parents”.

Table 3

Performance of independent creative works

Levelsofquality

The composition on a free subject The control/experimental at rural schools 229

The composition on a free subject at nomadic schools76

The creative

The advanced

The basic

Low (critical)

38\57

78\93

102\73

11\6

12\18

21\31

38\23

6\4

Pupils of rural nomadic schools chose subjects: “A deer – beauty and pride of the North”, “My family”. In compositions of the pupils estimated bycreative level of quality complete idea of a family, a total characteristic of parents, including character, commitment, the attitude towards other people, relatives, love to deer, the nature, their advantages, shortcomings, desire to be in something similar to them is noted. Pupils give an assessment to work of reindeer breeders, emphasizing that life of reindeer breeders and life of the nature are interconnected, opening a pride for the family and their values. A commission of experts, defining quality of the performed work, noted that at pupils of nomadic schools observation iswell developed, especially in life of a plant and animal life and show the pronounced emotional and estimated attitude to the described phenomena.

Thus, research of features of cognitive activity (motivation of the doctrine, cognitive interest, informative activity) of pupils of initial classes showed that the level of development of intellectual abilities with processing of information, formation of actions of the pupil whichwas considered from the practical, conscious, purposeful side, ability to represent a substantial assessment of the actions and to prove the estimates raised.

The created cognitive interest of pupils:

– makes active not only informative processes, but also creative incentive efforts of pupils in various spheres of activity;

– promotes bigger concentration of the purposes and ways of activity, stimulates search of the new purposes and ways;

– promotes expansion and increasing knowledge of pupils in subject domain, and also in wide areas (about the world, about the person) which pushes to self-knowledge; bears the peculiar emotional satisfaction inducing to long occupation by the related activity.

Formation and development of cognitive interests by teachers focused on an activity component of education will provide continuity of the purposes at a step of the general education.


Библиографическая ссылка

Zhirkova Z.S. Formation of cognitive interest of pupils of rural schools // Международный журнал экспериментального образования. – 2014. – № 9. – С. 7-9;
URL: http://expeducation.ru/ru/article/view?id=6379 (дата обращения: 04.08.2020).

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