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Международный журнал экспериментального образования

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ENVIROMENTAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLEGES OF INDUSTRIAL CITIES

Timofeyeva S.S. 1 Belykh L.I. 1 Ryabchikova I.A. 1
1 Irkutsk State Technical University

State ecological monitoring of atmospheric air in populated areas of industrial regions of Russia, especially the territory of Eastern Siberia, reveals systematic exceedings of maximum permissible hygienic concentrations (MPC) of carcinogenic solution of the 1st class of hazard benzapyrene (BaP) in cities with production of aluminium. At the example of the city of Shelekhov of Irkutsk region, where enterprise of electrolytic receiving of aluminum via technologies with self-burning anodes at the foundation of stone coal coke-pitch compositions JSC «IrKAZ-SUAL» is located, significant (2–5 MPC) and high (over 5 MPC) degrees of pollution has been registered at almost all objects of biosphere (Table 1).

Table 1

BaP in urban ecosystem of the city of Shelekhov and its suburbs

 

Mass concentration of bezapyrene

Objects of environment

Minimum-maximum

background

MPC

(units of measurement)

(n is a number of samples)

Russia

region

Atmospheric air, ng∙m-3

0,1–61 (n = 78)

0,1

< 0,01

1

Snow cover, ng∙g-1

9–13550 (n = 20)

6–15

1–3

Soil of various purpose, ng∙g–1

5,3–1300 (n = 100)

1–3 (15–20, black earth)

0,3 (grey forest)

20

Vegetation, ng∙g–1

10–530 (n = 20)

1–5

7–15

1 (grain)

Surface water, ng∙dm–3

1–40 (n = 20)

0,1

< 0,1

5

Bottom depositions, ng∙g–1

50–270 (n = 15)

1–3

0,6

20

The received results of condition of environment object represent carcinogenic hazard for natural ecosystems and human health, and it is necessary to allocate pollution sources in order to decrease or remove their negative impact completely. Therefore, balance of BaP in major sources of atmospheric pollution including productions of aluminium, construction materials, and also heating and transport system has been evaluated. The results are provided in Table 2.

Table 2

Contents and balance of BaP in sources of biosphere pollution on the territory of the city of Shelekhov

Production type

Discharge into atmosphere

Dumps into water reservoirs

Sources of discharge

t∙year–1

contribution, %

ng∙dm–3

contribution, %

Receipt of aluminium Electrolytic department

1,559

89,20

1135

97,2

Heat energetics Dust-coal boiling facilities

0,0003

0,02

3,2

0,3

Heating system Household stove

0,18

10,3

Construction industry Facilities of baking and receiving asphalt-concrete

0,0035

0,20

30

2,5

Automobile transport Gasoline and diesel engines of internal combustion

0,0052

0,28

TOTAL:

1,748

100

100

For all anthropogenic objects about 90 % of total amount of BaP comes from discharges of sources of electrolytic department of aluminium plant. The existing technology if the most unfavourable one in ecological meaning, and it requires reorganization. Particularly, replacement of stone coal stoves with oil-based ones, self-burning anodes with already burnt type, implementation of efficient methods of cleaning gas-dust discharges, facilitation of circulation water supply will provide for a decrease in discharges of carcinogenic substances into environment.

The second biggest part in discharges of BaP into atmosphere refers to heat sources of heating systems – household stoves of private sector with facilitation of solid types of coal and wood fuel. Contribution of sources of industrial production, automobile transport, and heat sources of greater power has formed tenth and hundredth parts of total substance mass. In case of sewer waters the greatest concentrations of BaP have been registered around production of aluminium.

Thus, high and significant, almost omnipresent pollution of natural environment objects of the studied urban ecosystem with carcinogenic BaP that exceeds background and hygienic levels, defines a great degree of ecological risk for the population and natural ecosystems of Southern Baikal area. These results testify for the presence of powerful sources of BaP discharge, and it requires new technologies of production and an efficient system of cleaning their discharges and dumps.

The work was submitted to the International Scientific Conference «Ecology industrial regions of Russia», London, October, 19–26, 2013, came to the editorial office on 16.12.2013.


Библиографическая ссылка

Timofeyeva S.S., Belykh L.I., Ryabchikova I.A. ENVIROMENTAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLEGES OF INDUSTRIAL CITIES // Международный журнал экспериментального образования. – 2014. – № 4-2. – С. 66-67;
URL: http://expeducation.ru/ru/article/view?id=5092 (дата обращения: 21.06.2021).

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