The perspectives of development of the direction “Technology. Service labour” in modern school are connected with the forming of new generation of teachers of technology< which is connected with the development of their pedagogical mastery. Besides, the leading place in the preparation of students there occupies the development of technological and aesthetical culture. The main task of culture activity of teacher is creation of conditions for revealing of abilities of students, upbringing of students’ aesthetic delight in cognition and participation in “useful” labour, receiving of qualitative product of labour. Thereby, in the article there are examined the components of pedagogical mastery, technological and aesthetical culture, there is established their interconnection. The processes of scientific search, the experience of work and results made the essence of research of circular experimental ground by technology.
The formation of generation of professional personnel, which defines the competitiveness of graduating students of middle school and education in common, as president D.A. Medvedev noticed in his messages to the Federal assembly, should become the base while the development of new educational conceptions and strategies of development of the school.
The solving of this problem is directed to the satisfaction of social requests of society “in possibility of opening by children of their abilities and their preparation for the life in high-technology world”. Similar conditions of development of education bring forward advance requirements to the qualification of pedagogue and his methodological work.
There are still actual the aims of educational sphere “Technology”: mastering of technological knowledge and culture at the base of including of students into different types of technological activity by the creation of personality or socially meaningful products of labour. At the process of this activity there are formed threshold and differentiate competences of students, which define the level of competitiveness and realization of their own potential. The formation of high level of these competencies consists in the development of technological and aesthetical culture of students (girls) of 5-8 classes by the way of improvement of the system of professional-technological and aesthetical viewpoints to the quality of produced items. In connection with this in the September 2009 at the base of laboratory of technology of SEI CGS N1973 there occurred the opening of circular experimental ground.
Object of research is the process of education of students of 5-8 classes by the direction “Technology. Service labour”.
Subject of research is the development of technological and aesthetical culture of students (girls) of 5-8 classes as the result of pedagogical mastery of the teacher of technology.
Aim of experiment is the development and approbation of author’s educational program of the direction “Technology. Service labour”, which guarantees the usage of forms, methods and means of education and upbringing, elements of educationally-methodical complex for the development of technological and aesthetical culture of students of 5-8 classes.
Tasks of experiment:
1. forming of the students’ of 5-8 classes system of professionally-technological and aesthetical approach to the quality of made items at the lessons by the direction “Technology. Service labour”;
2. creation of organizational-pedagogical conditions of development of threshold and differentiate compenetncies of students;
3. including of the requirements of state educational standard into a program by the direction “Technology. Service labour”;
4. development of author’s educational program of the direction “Technology. Service labour” for the students of 5-8 classes;
5. development of integrate model of the development of technological and aesthetical culture of the teenagers as the result of pedagogical mastery of the teacher of technology;
6. development of program documentation, contents and educationally-methodical complex by the sections of technological preparation;
7. development of procedural documentation (diagnosis, effectiveness etc).
Scientific novelty and meaning of the results of the experiment consist in the consideration of the possibility of pedagogical mastery of the teacher of technology by the development of technological and aesthetical culture of students (integrative model), and also development of new contents of educational-programm documentationof the direction “Technology. Service labour” and aesthetical-methodical accompaniment of the lessons of technology.
Integrative model Components of pedagogical mastery of the teacher of technology
Pedagogical mastery is the system of complex of the behavior of personality, which guarantees the high level self-organization of professional activity; synthesis of scientific knowledge, skills and abilities of methodical art and personal qualities of teacher.
1. Component of spiritually-moral values and ideals (oath of the teacher): hymanistic and ideological direction; noble moral aspect and own example; love to the children and profession, enthusiasm; responsibility and behavior.
2. Component of pedagogical abilities and technique: interaction; empathy; attention; trust; support; ability to admit an error; development; emotional stability; flexibility; dynamism; creativity; exactingness; optimistic prognosis; direction and interaction; foresight of mistakes.
3. Component of professional skills and abilities: cultural; scientific; psychologically-pedagogical; methodological; special professional. ]
Levels: 1. Low (professional unfitness). 2. Middle (threshold, standard). 3. High (effective and differentiative).
Components of the development of aesthetical culture of teenagers
Development of aesthetical culture is the process of forming and development of emotionally-sensitive and value cognition of personality and corresponding to it activity by the influence of different aesthetical objects and phenomena of reality.
1. Emotionally-sensitive component: interests; feelings; motives; creativity.
2. Intellectually-valuable component: values; norms; aesthetic; understanding; manufacturability; curiosity; self-realization.
3. Productive-action component: personal interest in the result of labour; possibility of using and exploitation of product; producing of the requirements to the quality of item and separate operations; technical aesthetic; transformation; approach to the product; satisfaction from the results.
Levels: 1. Low (aesthetical illiteracy, “tastelessness”). 2. Middle (standard and template). 3. High (productivity, creativity, quality).
Components of the development of technological culture of teenagers
1. Culture of the labour (technique of safety, organization of labour, graphic tastelessness, discipline).
2. Process of the making of item (projecting, constructing, design and sketch, producing of requirements, maintenance of parameters and regimes).
3. Quality of items and consumer purpose (the possibility of use and exploitation of the item that is based at the reaching of requirements to the item).
Levels: 1. Low (item is unfit to the use, low quality of making). 2. Middle (item has mass character of production, item contains not laborious technological nodes and processes). 3. High (individual model, synthesis of styles and ways of treatment, high quality).
Model shows the right dependence of effectiveness and success of the labour of the teacher of technology on the productiveness and quality of labour of students. In connection of this there was developed and implanted to the educational process the new aesthetical-methodological contents and accompaniment of lessons.
Contents and accompaniment of the lessons of technology (educationally-methodological complex)
1. Author’s program by the direction “Technology. Service labour” for 5-8 classes, which foresees the new approach to the structure and organization of the process of education with the saving of the requirements of educational standard. The special place at the program there is allotted to the carrying out of lessons at the manufacture, where students can familiarize and examine real technological processes.
2. Methodological manual for carrying out of lessons by the direction “Technology. Service labour” in 5-8 classes of middle comprehensive school, uniting and opening principles of education, methodic of education, traditional and untraditional technologies of education etc.
3. Leture material for the carrying out of lessons by the sections of “Technology of preparing meal”, “Bases of sewing materials technology, engeneering science, construction and modeling, technology of making of sewing items”, «Bases of the technology of modern manufacture”. Material was made at the base of studying of modern professional literature and documentation about condition of industry, technological processes of treatment of items, requirements to the quality.
4. Electronic illustrated manuals by the categories of technological preparation and educational movies about modern manufacture, which demonstrate “live” technological process, modern approach to the design of items, culture and aesthetic of labour.
5. The complete set of posters by constructing and modeling of sewing items in the 5 class (aprons), in 6 class (skirts), in 7 class (shorts and trousers), which reflect modern tendencies of fashion and construction of items, which allow to students to carry out the choice of their own item, to develop a sketch.
6. Graphic manuals by the technology of making the sewing items with the step-by-step treatment of nobles, which open the essence and peculiarities of technological treatment, criterions and control of quality.
7. The complete set of educationally-methodological documentation and manuals by the organization of designed activity (study of design and technology – making of complicated models, preparation of the foreign dishes; theory and practice of carrying out of the projects – business plans, houses for the birds etc).
Direction “Technology. Service labour” in the modern school continues to carry out the tasks by the forming of technological skills and abilities, development of aestetical culture. It should be mentioned the importance of girls-teenagers teaching of technology: it’s an ability to orientate oneself in modern sewing materials, make and estimate the quality of purchased items, culinary preparation, forming of technological thinking in common and getting of the aesthetical delight from the results of labour. Mentioned knowledge and skills define the success and competiveness of graduating students, and are also necessary in the connection with the fullness of the market with the sub-quality goods. The solving of examined problem directly depends on the high level of pedagogical mastery of the teacher of technology and equipment of the cabinets-workshops.