The city’s location on the ancient silk roads was the reason of developing spiritual to East tradition, and reflected national customs and traditions carpet weaving, knitting, sewing and other sectors of light industry and urban, and group of textile and weaving carpet enterprises, also the activity of sewing factory and other industrial enterprises have provided. In the Middle Ages there were the perfect transportation system here. If in Europe underground transport was built in the middle of the twentieth century, in Ganja in the Middle Ages were two-storey underground roads system, where also phaeton could be used. In addition to the transport and movement of population there were also other communication systems [1–3].
Among the Middle East’s transports, Ganja’s transport infrastructure plays a most important role. The city’s airport of international standards, is realize air flights to many countries of the world. Vast scale Baku-Supsa, Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum gas pipeline also are transported via the Ganja. Communication is one of the leading services of Ganja, that plays an important role in the socio-economic life of the city. The first Post Office in Azerbaijan was opened in Ganja. Mail expedition was established in Nakhchivan in 1828, and in Baku in 1836. The first Minister of Post and Telegraph of the first democratic republic in the East ADR was Ganjali Aga Ashurov. This ministry was located in the ancient building of Ganja’s post-office in present days.
The quick development of information and communication technologies in Ganja plays an important role in strengthening of statehood, the development of the economy, the regulation of social and political processes widen relations and enlightening the people. At present, mobile phone, Tran’s registered mail, internet service and also other areas of technology informations are the foundation of communication service in Ganja. Ganja is one of the cities of Azerbaijan that has ancient history, rich culture, and unique tourism opportunities. Ganja’s favorable natural and geographical position, pleasant climate, unique world of flora and fauna has always attracted tourists. Hajikend settlement, Koshku, Ashigli, Ezgilli, Chay kend and Togana kend were places of recreation of Ganjabasar. Also, Khoshbulag village is one of the most picturesque places of recreation of Ganjabasar. Approximately there are about 4800 residents and 1000 houses in the village. Meadow grasslands are green from early april till the middle of october. In some areas have been grown the artificial pine forests. From ancient times in watter supply of Ganja, that has a perfect communication system, underground-pipes pulled from Ganja and Qushqara river have played an important role. It is not accidental, that travellers, that come to Ganja, can‘t conceal their admirations, when they see Ganja’s greenness cover, climate and rich water.
The city has always protected its exception in the world with valuable (mostly) grapes gardens, plane alleys. Therefore, Ganja’s rose is famous not only in Azerbaijan, but also outside.
In general, climate and water supply system of Ganja have formed here the most favorable environment for the construction of parks and alleys, that are beautiful greenery and recreation centers. Recreation and culture park, named Heydar Aliyev, that differ with its immense and greatness, and also Khan Bagi (Khan’s garden), that belongs to the ancient Turkic tribes to the kajars, are the most valuable evidence of our conceptions. Khan Bagi, that has a very beautiful view, for the richness of the plants is considered as a rare natural place. Parks and avenues, which is named Fuzuli, Nariman Narimanov, Fikret Amirov, park «Qelebe» (the «Victory») and others give such as special beauty to the city, and also turned the city to the favorite recreation place for the population of Ganja and for its guests.
After the capital Baku, Ganja is the second largest center of science and culture of Azerbaijan. Because of region, where located the city in the South Caucasus has very important strategic position, in the I–IV millennium the main caravan route, that connected trade centers of the Middle East and Front Asia, were here. The ancient city Ganja found development on this trade way and over thousands of years was one of the well-known cultural centers. Today, according to the history tradition, after the capital of Azerbaijan – Baku, Ganja is the second largest center of science and culture. Theater, music, museums and libraries, that reflecting the cultural level of the city, contributes development of the intellectual sphere.
Well-known thinker, a patriot Ganja intelligent , an active member of the Party «Difai» and the society Mirza Muhammad Akhundov was founder of theater culture and wrote work «What is the Teatro?» about theater’s role in society. The first great national theater in Ganja was in 1933, on the basis of «Tengid-teblig theater» («critical-promoting theater») in Baku, that was founded in 1933. An ancient cultural center of Azerbaijan Ganja is rightly proud of well-known persons and valuable contribution, that it has given to treasury of the world’s musical culture.
An ancient Ganja and Ganjabasar is the land of Ozan’s, the cradle and hot spring Ashuq’s art. It becomes clear from the information in the book «Kitabi Dede Korkut» (VII century), that ozan’s history in our territory is very ancient. Ozans, who had taken «Qolcha Gobuz» (an old Azerbaijani musical instrument) and shared from country to country, from man to man people’s happiness and sadness, were the the leaders of people’s parties. The most ancient stringed musical instrument gobuz is a predecessor of the modern ashuq’s saz. Dede Korkud’s expression «gobuz is sacred» shows respect of our nation to music.
In the Middle Ages in Ganja poets, musicians, wise men and artists had meetings and were talking about science, literature, music, art. An existence of such kind of meetings prove participation of the first well-known poetess of Azerbaijan, the first woman chess player and the first prominent female musician Mehseti Ganjavi (XII century)and other scientific and literary sources [2–5].
Creation heritage of the great poet and thinker of Azerbaijan Nizami Ganjavi (1141–1209) on the universal importance gave a rich information to the national culture, and also influenced to the development of literature and art. Nizami’s characters have become the symbols of the culture of Azerbaijan. Many composers created vocal works, operas and ballets, symphony and other eternal music, that praised Nizami’s poetry in music, and enriched world’s culture. In XI–XII centuries there were creative meetings in Ganja, where singer, musician and poets took part. In such meetings the representatives of literature and art of that period, including Mahsati Ganjavi, also took part. Great Nizami Ganjavi in his works has said the name of thirty popular musical instruments that were widely spread in Azerbaijan at that time. This fact also proves that in XII century and more that earlier Azerbaijan people had high musical culture. Ganja city, that has high music feeling and the music culture, gave to the history of Azerbaijan national music such well-known composers as Meshedi Jamil Amirov,Fikret Amirov, Ganbar Huseynli, Zerif Gayibov, Telman Aliyev and Alakbar Tagiyev.
The love tradition to music lives in Ganja till nowadays. At present, State Philharmonic Society, «Goy-gol» State Song and Dance Ensemble, Orchestra of Folk Instruments, Ganja State Chamber Orchestra, music colleges, music schools are functioning in Ganja All genres of music – ashug, folk songs, opera, also the types of modern music have developed a high levelly in Ganja. More than 60 different medical institutions serve for the health of townsmen of Ganja. Currently, 20 hospitals, the Central Clinical Hospital, Eye diseases hospital, infectious diseases, Endocrinology, Psychiatry, 2 Children’s Hospital, First Medical Aid, Railway hospitals, 13 Ambulatory polyclinics, 5 Dispenser, 3 Medical Sanitary Section; 9 Medical Center: Diagnosis, Ganja pensioners Territory Social Service, Ganja Railway Hygiene and Epidemiology, Reproductive Health and Family Planning, Esculap Medical Center, Orthopedic Prosthetic Center, Beauty and Health Center, 2 Consulting also the First Aid Station, Children’s tuberculosis sanatorium and Maternity hospital are working here. In whole, there are 1387 doctors and 2622 nurseries work in medical centers of the city. The modern medical facilities, located in the city, are equipped with high-quality medical equipments [6–12].
Библиографическая ссылкаHasanov E.L. oglu INNOVATIVE DIRECTIONS IN INVESTIGATION AND TEACHING OF CULTURAL HERITAGE OF GANJA // Международный журнал экспериментального образования. – 2014. – № 4-2. – С. 42-43;
URL: https://expeducation.ru/ru/article/view?id=5081 (дата обращения: 23.09.2021).