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BELIEFS AND CUSTOMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE TOTEM OF ANIMALS IN TURKIС LANGUAGE

Rysbayeva G.K. 1 Molzhigitov S.K. 2
1 Kazakh State Women’s Teacher Training University
2 Kazakh National Technical University named after K.I. Satpayev

In our country, strengthening the independence and the entry of our country in a number of civilized countries, comprehension of the principles of national, moral and material values, and problems of their realization are vital nowadays. And this in turn requires the culture development; people pass their experiences, achievements in the development to future generations, as well as the progressive traditions of culture. Now consider the language picture of the world in general human cognition in the unity of the world model, and with the same conceptual view of the world is a philosophical and philological concept. The study “Language world” and “Conceptual picture of the world” in the trinity “Language-thought-world” is one of the urgent problems of modern linguistics. Language world – a specific method for the language of reflection and representation of reality in language forms and structures in its relation with the person who is the central figure of the language. From this point of view, we will consider the totem animal of Turkic peoples, including the ideological character of phraseology associated with the totemKok borі’ (Wolf) and ‘Ayu(Bear).

An Animal Totem is an important symbol and energy that a person uses to get in touch with specific qualities found within the animal which the person needs. Animals come to us because they have a lesson we need to learn or a power they are willing to share. An Animal Totem that comes to you brings power and wisdom if you will learn to communicate with it, give it respect, trust, and understanding. Animal totems tell us of lessons that we need to learn. They are powerful spiritual friends. Each animal has its own unique power and message. They help to empower and protect us. They can assist us with spiritual growth, inspiration, creativity and healing. They help us learn about ourselves.

You can have several animal guides through out your life. Sometimes an animal guide will come into your life for a short period of time, and then be replaced by another depending on your life path. Your guide will instruct and protect you as you learn how to navigate through your spiritual and physical life.

In our country, strengthening the independence and the entry of our country in a number of civilized countries, comprehension of the principles of national, moral and material values, and problems of their realization are vital nowadays. And this in turn requires the culture development; people pass their experiences, achievements in the development to future generations, as well as the progressive traditions of culture. Now consider the language picture of the world in general human cognition in the unity of the world model, and with the same conceptual view of the world is a philosophical and philological concept. The study “Language world” and “Conceptual picture of the world” in the trinity “Language-thought-world” is one of the urgent problems of modern linguistics. Language world – a specific method for the language of reflection and representation of reality in language forms and structures in its relation with the person who is the central figure of the language. From this point of view, we will consider the totem animal of Turkic peoples, including the ideological character of phraseology associated with the totemKok borі’ (Wolf) and ‘Ayu(Bear). Animal totems of Turkic-speaking peoples are: kook borі (wolf), bear, deer, argali (mountain sheep), a dog, worshiped all kinds of cattle, swan, crow, hawk, vulture, eagle, owl, and many other birds, totems and revered serpent, a dragon, and other inanimate objects to tote. Frequent totem among the Yakuts – an eagle, swan and vulture; Teleuts – eagle in Altai – a bear, the Khakass – eagle, Tuvinian – the swan and the eagle, Tuba’s – fish, vulture, eagle, swan, gull. Raven was considered sacred to the Turkic-Khakas, Tuvan, Yakut Sakha peoples. In Yakuts Sakha Crow was not only a totem, they have existed the Wolf Totem. In the sentence “Bіzdіn tanbamyz Bereke bolsyn, uranymyz kok borі bolsyn!” (Let Our sign will be unity, but will appeal kok borі (wolf)), through a combination of “tanbamyz Bereke bolsyn” (let the sign of our unity be prosperity). Turkic-speaking peoples from the beginning showed their desire to solidarity, unity and friendship. Through a combination of “Uranymyz kok borі bolsyn!” (let kok borі (wolf) be our motto) they called the nation to become strong and brave as wolf. Wolf had been deemed a sacred animal among many Turkic peoples since ancient times. The image of kөk bөrі is being used as Kazakh flag. This is a direct continuation of the the Turks “wolf flag”. This can be seen in poems of akyn Suyunbay: to be as brave, persistent and bold as a wolf.

“Borі uranym bass,

Borіlі Menin bayragym.

Borіlі bayrak koterse,

Kozyp Keter Kaydagim

Oguz Kagan was led from victory to victory by blue roan, blue wolf. Oguz Kagan before leaving the field against other countries distributed their subordinate feudal lords and the people of this decree: Men senderge kagan Boldym, Alyndar zhak pen kalkan, Tanba bіzge bolsyn Bereke, “Kok borі bolsyn uran”. I became your Hagan, take your bows and shields. Let our sign be solidarity, let a wolf be our motto [1]. Here you can see that the line “Kok borі bolsyn uran” has a deep philosophical meaning.

Because kok borі elevated to the level of the slogan in this line has long been revered and sacred animal in many Turkic-speaking people. And if the story “Yer Targyn” the protagonist is portrayed as the “Ay betіnen kіrіp, Kun betіnen shygatyn kok borі” (a wolf what have moon setting, and sun rising from his face), and the courage of Kambar batyr described as “zhalaktagan ash bori” (hungry wolf). This feature is also peculiar of the Kyrgyz tales. Even the famous Kyrgyz “Manas” Manas batyr is described as “kara shagyr kabylany myeon koseu қuyryk kok arystannan tys, arkasynda kara kok zhaly bar zholyna Nur togіlgen bala”:

Arkasynda balanyn,

Kara kok zhaly korіndі.

Kara shagyr kabylany,

Kaptalynda shabyndy.

Koseu kuyryk kok Arystan

On zhagynda kabyndy.

Nur togіlіp zholyna

Barі oylagan balanyn

Manas dep aty tabyldy [2].

Therefore, the image of “Borі” widely shows the world of Turkic-speaking people. In the knowledge of our ancestors kok borі – light of Tengri is a symbol of victory and heroism.

Among the Turkic peoples are found proverbs, beliefs associated with kok borі, wolf. The proverb “Koidyn iyesі Bolsa, borіnіn tanіrі bar” or “Ittіn iyesі Bolsa, borіnіn tanіrі bar” at the Kyrgyz people sounds like: “Maldyn iesі Bolsa, borіnіn tanіrі bar” and the Russian people, “The dog has the owner, and the wolf has god”. Borі is Tengri’s dog, so people have a belief that if the sheep paddock was attacked by wolf people interpreted this as a good sign, “Kok borіnіn auzy tidі, kok tanіrі koldaydy, mal osіp, jaman bolady”. Kazakh people defines the relationship of wolf with steppe wilderness and mountain, “Eldі zherde ury bar Tauly zherde borі bar” (there is thief in the place where people live, and there is wolf where the mountain), “Borі kyr askansha”, “Dalada borі ulysa, uydegі ittіn іshі ashidy”. (when a wolf howls in outside the dog envies at home) Arab proverb says, “It urse kalma, elge aparar, borі ulysa Barma, sholge aparar”. (don’t stay when the dog barks, it leads to country, don’t go when wolf howls, he leads to the desert) This proverb says that a wolf’s howl was considered as a bad omen. The Kazakhs of Mongolia believed that shooting wolves and taking away their puppies leads to bad luck and forbidden to do so. They were afraid that the wolf will return and take revenge, “Kaskyr kaytse bіr sokpay ketpeydі” (anyway the wolf makes visit)[3]. The proverb “Kaskyrdyn zhese de auzy kan, Zhemese de auzy kan” (in the sense that you need to beware of shamelessness when you get dirty, it will be difficult to purify) shows the similarity of bases of two languages: in Uzbek, “Ena Burining ham oғzi қon, Emas ham ogzi kon” / “Бурининг еса хам оғзи қон, Емаса хам оғзи қон”.

The totem wolf had two names, the first – kok borі, according to the historical tradition of honor, that is, seen as a totem, the second – the enemy of livestock, regarded as a predatory animal. The ancestors of the Kazakhs Huns in ancient times considered a wolf as totem. And one more special image that was made by Hunnish masters was wolf’s head sculpture made of gold. When they remembered their ancestors, they looked into the sky and worshipped this sculpture. The name of one of the Turkic tribes – Ashina-Achino, comes from the word meaning “noble wolf” [4]. The legend of Ashina says at the time of the enemies’ invasion, a wolf (shin – is translated as a wolf in Mongol), adopted a boy who was left at the old habitation of the nomads. The descendants of Turkic Ashina are descended from the descendants of this boy. Not only the Turks believe that their ancestors came from the wolf, the Romans also call themselves descendants of the wolf. At the time of Turk Kaganats originated the belief that the ancestor of the Turks is kok borі.

Not only Kazakhs, but also Kyrgyz, Uzbeks, Turkmens, Tatars saw the wolf as a sacred animal, and never called him directly, for example, Kazakhs called him “uzyn kulak” “tіk кulak”, “ulyma”, “kokzhal”, “it-kus” Uzbeks used the transition to the meaning of “itkush” (um-қуs), Turkmens used euphemism “ady zhіten” (untitled), mesdan it (the dog of the steppes). The Kazakhs, even at the present time do not call his name. Pastoralists believed that if you call him a “wolf”, then he will attack livestock. When people meet on the village they had a tradition of asking, “Malyn It-қustan aman ba?” (are your animals safe from itkus?). It is the imprint of ancient totemism. The people have a belief that if a wolf runs ahead of the traveler, he is lucky.

Turkic-Altai people, too, thought the wolf was a sacred animal, and never called his name, for example, Soyots called him “uzyn қuyrykty”, “ulyma”, “kok koz”, Kaczynski Tartars called “uzyn қuyryk” and Yakuts “қuyrykty”. Altai Turks did not use a direct name “Poru”, instead of this was used the term “aga” , and Chuvashs instead of calling “kashkyr” used such euphemistically names as “uzyn қuyryk”, “tokpak қuyryk” or “tanіr itі” [5].

In The image of kok borі the sign of totemism, fetishism, animalism are visible. There were beliefs about the tendons, bones and meat of the wolf. For example, in the old village residents to find a person committed a theft, said “Kaskyrdyn taramysyn өrtegelі zhatyrmyn” (going to burn the tendon of a wolf). It came from the belief that, burnt leg tendon will hurt the thief’s leg. A thief who was scared to have leg cringe: “Ayagym tartylyp kalady” nemese “Taramys, sіnіrіm tartylyp kalady”, brought the stolen item.

There was a belief of carrying the wolf’s bone as a mascot. Fat and meat of the wolf used to treat tuberculosis. There is a belief that if the Kazakh women during pregnancy were craving wolf’s meat, the boy born by them will be brave, courageous. For instance: mother of one of the famous XVI century warriors Orak Mamai Karaulek azhe sings thus:

“... Mamayzhan boyga bіtkende,

Arystan, borі etіn zhep,

Kanyp edі zherіgіm” (23 zhoktau, Moscow, 1926).

One of these wild animals was a bear. The bear’s tabooed name was “aba”. Ancient hunters saw a bear as a protector of all animals, the saint patron of hunters, the ancestor of all mankind; he was seen as a creator. Referring to the researchers’ views: “During the Paleolithic age bear turned to totemic cult of fire-Mother” [6]. Therefore, hunters were afraid to eat meat of bear. Buryats, even if they never considered a bear as totem, they never gouged out his eyes when murdered an animal, assuming his eyes as star, and told: “We didn’t kill you, the hamnigany and Urynkhay murdered you, black crows whispered that”. At the same time shouting at the Raven – conveys M.N. Hangalov [7]. Kazakhs slaughtering the stock said “You have no guilt, and we have no food”, and this meant that they ask for forgiveness. Adoration of the bear is common in the Altai, Tuvan, Saha, Khakas and Buryat people. Turkic-speaking peoples are not called him directly by name, and used the euphemistic names. For example, the Yakut called “eһe” (grandfather), “tyataagy”, “kyrdagas” Altai “abaay” (her father), “karyndash”, “taay” Teleuts “Eph kulakty”, “Cheer hulahtyg” Tuva “kayirahan” (king of the creatures) [5].

Kazakhs also honored the bear. The Kazakhs have devoted bears kyui (music) “Zhorga ayu”, “Ayu biі”. Also, there are names of people like Ayub, Ayuhan, Ayukhanov, etc.

In the ancient records there are names as Arslan (Lion), Aşına (Wolf), Bars (Leopard), Buqa (raindeer), Küçük (puppy), Qaban (wild boar), Qulan (kulan), Teka (goat), and etc. The Tatars were called wolf “bүре” Leopard “Leopard” lion “Arslan”, as there are people they are: Baiburin, Burke, Buriev, Burikaev, leopard, snow leopards, Aybaris/ Aybarys, Ilbars, Ilbaris, Bibarsov, Akbars, Arslan, Baybүre, Bug, Baybuga, Kөchek, Kүbәk, ets. And, among the ancient names of turk people Arslan/ Arslan called the rulers of Turfan, and Karahan: Arslan balban, Arslan tegin, Arslan Bilge Tengri ilig [8].

Conclusion

In the language of Turk-speaking People the wolf and the bear were considered as bold, fierce, brisk, courageous animals. Perhaps because of this brave young men were taught to be strong, took heart, accustomed to the courage and bravery.

The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference “Innovative technologies in the higher and professional education”, Spain (Majorca), July, 23–30, 2014, came to the editorial office оn 20.06.2014.


Библиографическая ссылка

Rysbayeva G.K., Molzhigitov S.K. BELIEFS AND CUSTOMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE TOTEM OF ANIMALS IN TURKIС LANGUAGE // Международный журнал экспериментального образования. – 2014. – № 9. – С. 34-37;
URL: https://expeducation.ru/ru/article/view?id=6392 (дата обращения: 06.12.2021).

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