The urgency of the problem of mental and emotional health of teachers of preschool educational institutions and its relationship with socio-psychological factors due to the fact that modern society places high demands on various aspects of activity of teachers in General and teachers of preschool educational institutions in particular, institutions that are first, the basic part of the entire education system and serve to prepare the child for further education, bookmark it basic human knowledge and skills, the comprehensive development of natural abilities and exposure to the social life. In the educational activity content and the nature of relations between its members are collateral to its success. It is therefore evident that the emotional burnout syndrome characterized by emotional and personal detachment of the teacher educator, the expanding economy of emotions, ignoring individual characteristics of the pupils, has a relatively strong influence on the nature and success of professional activity.
In most works, the problem of emotional burnout is considered mainly from the point of view of psycho-physiological approach to the study of personality. However, it seems obvious and the fact that the specificity of pedagogical activity in modern conditions due to high risk of developing emotional stress and emotional burnout syndrome under the influence of the subjective and objective, socio-psychological factors of educational environment . In this regard, justified and relevant, due to lack of knowledge, the study of the role that the social-psychological factors in the formation of emotional burnout syndrome among teachers and educators of preschool educational institutions. The most important among them is the sociometric status of a teacher of preschool education institutions, recognition of his personality, professional achievements and contributions to the team.
The main part
There are various definitions of emotional burnout. In accordance with the most popular foreign model K.K. Maslach and S. Jackson , burnout is viewed as a response to long-term professional stress interpersonal communications and manifests itself in three structural components: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization (cynicism) and reduction of personal achievements.
In the domestic scientific literature the most recognized and confirmed in applied research is the approach to the problem of emotional burnout centuries Boyko . The author gives this definition of burnout (it should be noted that in the vast majority of both domestic and foreign researches on this issue, the concept of ‟burn-out” and ‟professional burnout” are treated as synonymous): ‟Emotional burnout is developed personality a psychological defense mechanism in the form of full or partial exemption of emotions (lowering their energy) in response to repeated traumatic exposure” [1, p. 133]. Boyko is considering the formation of emotional burnout as a dynamic process, influenced by external and internal factors, and which develops in accordance with the mechanism of the development of the three phases of stress: alarm voltage, resistance and exhaustion. According to the model Century Century Boyko, features displays of a syndrome of emotional burnout of teachers of preschool educational institutions can be characterized as follows:
In the phase voltage teacher under the influence of daily accumulated stressful circumstances is aware of the presence of these factors in their professional activity, which leads to increased dissatisfaction with himself, his profession, a sense of hopelessness, despair, anxiety, disappointment in myself, in the teaching profession and in his post. In the phase of resistance, the teacher consciously and unconsciously tries to reduce the influence of external circumstances, while taking inappropriate emotional reactions in professional communication, earning himself and his strategy, thereby further blocks are adequate of the emotion that causes the “savings” of emotions, which gradually causes a reduction of professional responsibilities, when the teacher simply apportion the attention of children, colleagues, limited to formalized part of business communication. In the phase of emotional exhaustion burnout is transformed into a permanent personality characteristics and behavior of the teacher, causing full or partial loss of interest in the subjects of pedagogical communication to complete depersonalization and leads to a transition reactions emotional level psychosomatic (can lead to various somatic diseases). In severe forms of the phase depletion employment of a person in the sphere of preschool education is contraindicated.
The formation of emotional burnout syndrome among teachers is determined as the total for all communicative professions factors and factors specific to the activity (‟low pay, lack of prestige of the profession, the imbalance between intellectual energy costs and the moral and material compensation, permanent press” review by the various services, management and parents, the intensity of the educational process, expressed in the content of the educational programmes, etc.). It should be noted another important socio-psychological feature of the organizational structure of pre – school educational institutions, the homogeneity of the gender of the teaching staff, namely, his feminisierung, therefore, he has a peculiar exclusively female group specificity. According to K.A. Dubinskoy , applied to homogeneous teachers gender features ‟manifest primarily in the increased importance of interpersonal relationships in the context of intergruppo structuring, the desire to avoid conflict, combined with the predominance of passive-aggressive behaviors when they occur, bringing the emotional-affective component in any decision, including a purely business problems, expressed manifestations of the phenomenon of social contagion in the broader situational context. All this significantly complicates the process of group development, and experiencing stress-related professional activities” .
The aim of our study was the analysis of the relation between sociometric status of a teacher of preschool institutions and manifestations of emotional burnout syndrome. To implement the objectives of the study, we used the following methods and techniques: testing on the methods of diagnosis of the level of emotional burnout centuries Boyko , the method of diagnosing professional (emotional) burnout (MBI) K.K. Maslach and S. Jackson in adapting N.E. Vodopyanova , sociometry. Empirical base of the research was, the teachers of kindergarten № 142, Tver. The diagnostic results of these methods were comparable and did not reveal contradictions. By the first method MBI high level of emotional burnout was detected in 6 employees (20 % of the staff), and appeared on the depersonalization factor (43 %), i.e. some emotional ‟dryness”, detachment from the subject of professional communication. By the method of V. Boyko, which confirmed a generally positive emotional atmosphere in the team, not conducive to rapid progressive formation of burnout symptoms, also identified isolated cases of formation of phases of burnout, however, does not allow to evaluate the level of statistical significance. We have conducted parametric sociometric study with a statistically valid for the team of 34 members sociometry limitation in the number 7 election. To determine the sociometric status of the teacher were calculated sociometry index for each member of the investigated group, subsequently ranked using the tool ‟Descriptive statistics” package ‟data Analysis with Microsoft Excel 7.0 into three groups: ‟high status”, ‟sredneetazhnye” and ‟one of low status” teachers. It was found that the sample represented 26 % of the high status of teachers, 42 % one of low status (mainly beginners team and teachers with great experience) and 32 % sredneshirotnykh teachers.
A comparative analysis of the level of emotional burnout of caregivers and teachers, occupying high status, sredneetazhnye and one of low status position in the group was conducted on the basis of the average intensity of each of the three phases of burnout by the method of V.V. Boyko. Average values of burnout in two phases – voltage and resistance above it sredneshirotnykh employees, the depletion phase lead with a small margin (1 point) one of low status employees. High status employees identify low levels of burnout in all three phases. You should pay attention to the fact that when comparing quantitative criteria for determining the level of emotional burnout by the method of V. Boyko (36 or less points – phase is not formed; 37–60 points phase at a formative stage; 61 or more points – formed phase) and the average burnout in all three status groups, none of the three phases of emotional burnout is not detected formed or forming. Moreover, the most pronounced, from the point of view of professional burnout, phase – phase resistance, the higher the level of its average value (sredneshirotnykh employees) when there are only 30 points, which is significantly below the established centuries Boyko threshold for the beginning of the formation of phases in 36 points. The low degree of burnout among teachers of the studied preschool is confirmed also by external observation and analysis of the performance of the team. As an example you can take a group of teachers, with enthusiasm and emotional involvement involved in the preparation and support of colleagues of the teacher-psychologist – in competition ‟the Best teacher”, which resulted in the first place first in the city, and then at the regional level. Or, for example, participation in the traditional launch balloons into the sky graduates of the preparatory group, which caused a noticeable positive emotional response from teachers.
Thus, the results of our study in General convincingly prove the influence of socio-psychological factors on the formation of a syndrome of emotional burnout of teachers of preschool educational institutions, namely confirmed that favorable intergroup climate, which is manifested in sociometry positions of group members, and relaxed emotional conditions prevent the formation of emotional burnout. Because the structure of informal relations interpersonal significance may mediate mental health of teachers in General and the degree of manifestation of emotional burnout in particular, and ultimately the effectiveness of educational activities, the optimization of the relationship in the pedagogical team and ensuring a favorable psychological atmosphere in the group can be considered the most important directions in psychological prevention and mental hygiene work of teachers of preschool educational institutions. For the purposes of psychological prevention and psycho-correction of the emotional burnout syndrome can to recommend the following: first, to optimize the workload of teachers, to establish in preschool rooms or ‟corners” of psychological relief, to schedule the work of the teachers involved in the training of cognitive and behavioral skills training for coping (overcoming) emotional stress influences the development of emotional self-regulation skills with the help of a psychologist, to arrange psychological training to optimize the socio-psychological climate in preschool, formation of corporate culture in the team.
Библиографическая ссылкаGonina O.O., Gonina O.O. The emotional burnout syndrome among teachers of preschool educational institutions // Международный журнал экспериментального образования. – 2015. – № 12-6. – С. 703-705;
URL: https://expeducation.ru/ru/article/view?id=9317 (дата обращения: 06.12.2021).