North-Eastern Federal university named after M.K. Ammosov, Yakutsk, e-mail: email@example.com
All cataclysms occurring in spiritually-moral sphere of a modern society, confirm inevitability of transition to a personal-semantic paradigm of education. Probably, today it is necessary to staticize and comprehend all arsenal of ideas, methods, technologies of semantic formation and developments of intrinsic bases of the person, proved in domestic pedagogics for creation of real dynamic conditions of prompting of the person to self-development and self-creation.
Semantic formation is the most effective at integration of potential of modern education with Cultural creating and human creating essence of traditional culture of education. In the course of the development the traditional culture of education of children in Russia was issued as the greatest spiritually-moral value of the people.
At the time of K.D. Ushinsky in reading book of an initial course of domestic literature there was a section of the spiritually-moral reading, which main objective – education of love to native sources. On K.D. Ushinsky’s deep belief, education appointment – to grow up the person having a specific goal in life. The analysis of works of K.D. Ushinsky allows to conclude that one of the greatest means Semantic forming developments of the person is the people folklore.
Considering that oral national creativity as the ethnopedagogical phenomenon and a source of national values demands more substantial approaches to studying and a reflection of values, we have made an attempt to revive the forgotten tradition of domestic literature and have solved in modern quality to rethink process of «spiritually-moral reading» children in educational institutions of our republic.
In a context of a humanization of pedagogical process essentially important positions of model of «spiritually-moral reading» were: not assimilation and not accommodation, and integration into persons original national and universal as comprehension of own cultural advantage and advantage of others, an openness and creativity to the world; support of subject-matter of the child at all stages of activity, his Semantic forming activity in self-development and Destiny building, development of universal infinity, «an exit for limits of», opennesses to the world; Maintenance of Cultural conformity of education and development of the child when cultural values act: on the one hand, as set of achievements of a society, with another – as a source of creative transformation of the person; in this context the understanding of the valuable maintenance of folklore is considered by the child as a reference point of creating life and mastering by values in own «a reflective key» (V.M. Rozin); the model end result is an emotionally-moral experience of values of a fairy tale, bylinas, legends, legends etc. by the child,: understanding of his participation in destiny of a family, the people, mankind; destiny of native places, the native land and comprehension within the possibilities of own responsibility and at the same time the security in each of them;
Spiritually-moral reading of national literature, on the one hand, staticizes an openness of the child to the world, his valuable-semantic relation to him, and with another, urges on parents, teachers to Semantic forming development of the person of children. Hence, the spiritually-humanistic person can be developed only on the basis of amplification of ways, ascension ways to values-ideals and actualization of an is subjective-personal component of value. Ignoring of an is subjective-personal component of intrinsic bases of the person leads to a spiritual impoverishment.
Special sensuality is shown in the process of measurement, an active projection, interpretation of values, identification of with the creating person at the child. He finds out own uniqueness, connectivity, responsibility to destiny own both parents; the maintenance and technology of work with children provide developing influence of values on consciousness of children and promote psycho-emotional satisfaction, development of steady emotionally-valuable displays, creative-informative activity, humane style of behavior.
The preschool age is the sensitive period for formation of spiritually-humanistic bases of the person, comprehension of own «connectivity» (N.E. Shchurkova) with destiny of a family, the native people and as a whole mankind.
In researches of domestic psychologists it is established, what exactly ability and requirement to operate at preschool age at children for the first time are shown, being guided by «internal ethical instances». On L.S. Vygotsky, this reference point grows out of mastering of moral requirements of a society. Occurrence of internal ethical instances testifies that external requirements turn in internal, which kids carry out voluntarily, irrespective of control of adults show them to another and to himself.
In a context of a studied problem V.A. Petrovsky, S.L. Rubinshtejna, V.E. Frankla’s views are close to us, etc., confirming about infinity of the person. V.E. Frankla’s statement: «to be the person – means to fall outside the limits itself. I would tell that the essence of human existence consists in his transcendo» speaks about necessity of enrichment of some approaches to studying of intrinsic properties of the person, allowing to be a social and spiritual being.
Creation of pedagogical conditions of Semantic forming formations of children of preschool age should correspond to age of the child, subculture of the childhood and to be based on following ideas:
– Development of intrinsic valuable potential of the child and if isn’t present by the end of preschool age it has quite often an effect (M.I. Lisina, N.I. Not, S.L. Rubinshtejn, etc.) should become a leading line of development of the person till the end of preschool age.
– The major aspect of sense of the childhood in human culture consists in opening himself and another as person, in finding of a measure of human in the person (социокультурном, spiritual formation) that underlies development of individual; children in 5-6 years (62 % of children) prefer conversations on personal themes in dialogue with adults, i.e. «in process of a growing preschool children pass to contacts of the profound moral-personal plan» (Z.M. Boguslavskaya, A.G. Ruzskaya, E.O. Smirnova, etc.).
– Dialogical interaction is natural quality of the child that dialogue along with game is «this element in which lives and develops the child» (F. Frebel); the organization of philosophic conversation, under N.E. Shchurkova’s statement, this education of ability to generalizations that the child could see the life phenomena behind the fact, behind the phenomenon – laws, and behind laws to distinguish bases of human life.
It is necessary to underline that today educational activity in educationtion establishments, should be considered as construction process of semantic vital concepts of the person and an ascension in «spiritual-I». Thus the education system which is institute of the state, responsible for formation and development of the person, should be improved, being supplemented with the innovative maintenance and being enriched with the technology, focusing on semantic formation.
The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference «Actual problems of science and education», Cuba (Varadero), 20-31 March 2011, came to the editorial office on 27.01.2011