The Daghestani State Pedagogical University, Makhachkala, e-mail: email@example.com
The rapid social transformations, which our whole society is being survived in the last decades, have cardinally and drastically been changed not only the people’s life conditions, but and the whole educational situation. So, in this connection, the education new conception creation object, having reflected, as the society’s interests, well as the every single person’s interests, has been become the acutely urgent and the pressing one.
Thus, in the last years, the new comprehension of the education main goal has been emerged in the society: the readiness for the self – development formation, having provided the personality’s integration into the national and the world – wide cultures.
So, this target realization is being demanded the challenges whole complex performance and the implementation, among which the main ones are the following:
1) the teaching and the training activity – is the ability to be set up the goals, to be organized their activity for their achievement, and also to be evaluated their actions results;
2) the personality qualities formation – are the mind, the will, the feelings and the emotions, the creative abilities, and the activity cognitive motives and the causes;
3) the world – wide picture formation, which is the adequate to the knowledge modern level and to the educational program level.
So, it should to be emphasized, that the orientation for the developing teaching and the training is not meant the refusal from the knowledge, the abilities and the skills formation at all, without which it is quite impossible the personality’s self – determination, and also its further self – realization.
That is why, the didactic system after Ya.A. Komensky, having absorbed the centuries – long and the ancient traditions of the knowledge transfer system on the world to the pupils and to the students in itself, and today, it has been made up the methodological basis, which is so called «the traditional» school:
• The didactic principles – are the visualization and the demonstrativeness, the accessibility and the availability, the scientific content, character and approach, the systematization and the systematicness, and the consciousness of the teaching material mastering.
• The teaching method – is the illustrative – explanatorily one.
• The teaching form – is the set – formly one.
However, it is quite obvious to everyone, that the existing didactic system, not having exhausted the whole its significance, at the same time, is not being permitted efficiently to be carried out the developing education function. In the last years, the quite new didactic demands and the requirements, which are being decided the contemporary educational objectives and the challenges, with due regard for the future requests, have already been formed in the works of L.V. Zankov, V.V. Davydov, P.Ya. Galperin, and, also in the works of many other teachers – the scientists, the teachers – the scholars, and the practitioners. So, the main from them are the following:
1. The Principle of Activity.
The main conclusion of the pedagogical – psychologically researches and the investigations of the last years is being concluded in the fact, that the pupil’s personality formation and his advancement and the progression in the further development is being carried out not then, when he is being perceived the ready and the finished knowledge, but in the process of his own activity, having directed at the quite new knowledge «discovery» made by him.
Thus, the child’s inclusion just into the cognitive – educational activity is the main mechanism of the developing teaching and the training targets and the objects realization. Herein, and the principle of activity is being concluded. So, the teaching and the training, having realized the principle of activity, is being called the activity approach.
2. The Principle of the Integral Presentation on the World.
As far back as, Ya.A. Komensky has noted, that the phenomena are necessary to be studied in the mutual connection, but not singly and separately (e.g. not as «the firewood heap»). In our time, this thesis is being acquired even more importance and greater significance. So, it is meant, that the generalized, and the integral presentation on the world (e.g. on the nature – on the society – on himself), on the every science role and its place in the sciences’ system must be formed at the child. It is quite naturally, that, for all this, the knowledge, having formed at the pupils and at the students, must be reflected the scientific knowledge language and the structure.
So, the principle of the world’s unified picture in the activity approach is being closely connected with the scientific content, character and approach didactic principle just in the traditional system, but it is rather much deeper than it. Here, the matter is not simply on the world’s scientific picture formation, but also and on the pupils’ and the students’ personality relation to the received knowledge, and, moreover, on the ability and the skill to be used them in their practical activity. For example, if what is at the issue is on the ecological knowledge, then the pupil and the student must not simply to be known, that it is no good and so gross to be plucked those or other flowers, to be left behind themselves the garbage in the forest and in the woods and so on, but to be taken their own solution do not do that way.
3. The Principle of the Continuity.
The principle of the continuity is quite meant the succession between all the teaching and the training stages at the methodology, the content and also the methods level.
So, the succession idea also is not quite new for the pedagogics, however, still it is often being limited, by so called «the propaedeutics or the preliminary study», but it is not being decided systematically. So, the continuity challenge has already been acquired the special relevance and the urgency, in connection with the variative programs’ appearance.
4. The Principle of the Minimax.
So, all the children are quite different and diverse, and each from them is being developed by his own pace. At the same time, the teaching and the training have been orientated upon the some average level in the mass school, which is too high for the poor knowledge children, and, it, moreover, is obviously insufficient for stronger knowledge ones. In its turn, this aspect is being slowed down the further development, as the strong knowledge children, well as the poor knowledge ones.
So, the 2-nd, the 4-th and so on levels are frequently being singled out, in order to be taken into consideration the pupils’ and the students’ individual peculiarities, and also their special features. However, the real levels in the class are exactly as much, as the children in it! Is it quite possible to be defined them all exactly? Besides, not to be mentioned on the fact, that practically it is quite difficult to be taken into consideration even the four levels – because you know, it is meant the 20 special preparations per a day for the teacher!
Thus, the final solution is quite simple: to be singled out only the two levels – the maximum one, having defined the children’s nearest development zone, and also the necessary minimum. So, the minimax principle is being concluded in the following: the school must be suggested the education content by the maximum level to the pupil and to the student, but the pupil and the student are being obliged to be mastered all this content by its minimum level.
So, it is quite apparently, the minimax system is the optimal one for the individual approach realization, as this is the self – regulating system. The poor knowledge pupil and the student are being limited by the minimum, but the strong knowledge ones – will be taken everything, and they will go further. All the rest will be placed in the interval between these two levels, in accordance with all their own abilities and their own possibilities – eventually, they will be chosen their own level themselves, by their own possible maximum.
So, the work is being carried out at the difficulty high level, but it is evaluated only the obligatory final result, and also the success. Then, it will be permitted to be formed the setting for the success achievement, but not for the avoiding from the «poor» mark or the D grade, that is much more significant for the motivational sphere development.
5. The Principle of the Psychological Comfort.
The principle of the psychological comfort is being suggested all the stress factors forming removal of the teaching and the learning process, as far as possible, such atmosphere creation, which is being unchained the children, and, in which they feel and make themselves «at home», as in the school, well as at the lesson.
So, no progress in their study would not be given any benefit and the further final result, if they «are being involved and mixed up» in fear before the adult people, in the child personality suppression.
However, the psychological comfort is quite being necessary not only for the all knowledge mastering – the children’s physiological state is being depended from this. Then, the adaptation to the specific conditions, the goodwill and the benevolence atmosphere creation will be permitted to be removed the tension and also the neuroses, having constantly destructed and ruined the children’s health.
6. The Principle of the Variability.
Thus, the modern life is constantly being demanded to be made the choice skill from the man – from the goods, products, the wares choice, and the services selection up to the friends’ choice, and also the course of life choices. The principle of the variability is being suggested the variability way of the thinking at the learners, the pupils, and the students, that is the task solution different versions possibility comprehension, and also to be made the systematic sorting options and the variants skill.
So, the learning, the teaching and the training, in which the principle of the variability is realized, is being removed fear at the learners, the pupils, and the students before the mistake, is being taught to be comprehended the misfortune not as the tragedy, but as the signal for its further correction. Such kind of approach to the challenges and the problems solution, especially in the very difficult situations, is so necessary, as well in the human life: do not to be lost heart, in the case of the failure, but to be sought and to be found the most constructive way.
From the other hand, the principle of the variability is being provided the teacher’s right to the independence in the educational and the teaching literature, the academic and the reference books, the textbooks, the work’s forms and the methods, their adaptation level just in the educational, the leaning and the teaching process. However, this kind of the right has been born also and the teacher’s greater and the heavier responsibility for his activity final result – the teaching quality.
7. The Principle of the Creativity (the Creativeness).
The principle of the creativity is being supposed the maximum orientation for the creative beginning in the children’s learning, the educational, and the teaching activity, and also the creative activity their own experience acquisition by them.
So, the point is here not on the tasks’ simple «concoctions» by the analogy, though and such kind of these tasks should to be welcomed in every possible way. Here, first of all, it is meant the ability formation at the learners, the pupils and the students independently to be found the solution, not having met the tasks before, the actions new methods independent «discovery» by them.
The ability to be created the new one, to be found the vital life challenges non – standard solution today has been become the integral constituent part of the every person’s real vital life success. That is why, the creative abilities development is being acquired the general educational significance nowadays.
So, the above – described teaching, the learning and the training principles, having developed the traditional didactics ideas, are being integrated the quite useful and the non – conflicting ones among each other ideas just from the education new conceptions from the scientific and the research views’ continuity positions. They are not being rejected, but they are being continued and are being developed their traditional didactics, in direction of the modern educational challenges solutions.
In reality, it is quite obviously, that the knowledge, which the child had been «discovered» by himself, visually for himself, accessibly and consciously was mastered by him. However, the child’s inclusion and his entering into the activity, in contrast to the quite traditional visual teaching, the learning and the training, it is being activated his further thinking, and also it is being formed the readiness and the willingness for the self – development at him (e.g. after V.V. Davydov).
The teaching, the learning and the training, having realized the world’s picture integrity principle, is being met requirements of the scientific content, character and approach, but, at the same time, it is being also realized and the quite new approaches, such as the education humanization and the humanitarization (e.g. after G.V. Dorofeev, A.A. Leontiev, L.V. Tarasov).
The minimax system efficiently is being promoted the personality qualities development, and also it is being formed the motivational sphere. Herein, the multi – level teaching challenge is being decided, which is being permitted to be promoted all the children’s further development, as the knowledge strong ones, well as the knowledge weak ones (e.g. after L.V. Zankov).
The psychological comfort requirements are being provided the child’s psychophysiological state recording and the registration, and it also is being promoted the children’s cognitive interests development and their health maintenance and their preservation (L.V. Zankov, A.A. Leontiev, Sh.A. Amonashvili).
So, the continuity principle is being given the systemic character to the succession challenges solution (e.g. after N.Ya. Vilenkin, G.V. Dororfeev, V.N. Prosvirkin, V.F. Purkina).
The variability principle and the creativity principle are being reflected the most necessary conditions of the personality’s successful integration into the modern social life.
Thus, the all above – listed didactic principles, to a certain extent, are quite necessary and sufficient for the education modern purposes realization, and today, they are already be able to be realized in the comprehensive secondary school.
At the same time, it should to be emphasized, that the didactic principles system formation is not quite able to be completed, because the life itself is being placed the significance accents, and, that is why, the every accent has already been justified by the given specific historical, the cultural, and the social application.
The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference «Actual problems of science and education», Cuba (Varadero), 20-31 March 2011, came to the editorial office on 05.03.2011.