«XIX century was an industrial century, XX century was a management century, XXI century will be the century of the economic power» . Power is one of the problems of economics, especially of management theory. Power is required for the connection of management and functional activities; integration of work departments in order to meet the market demand and control. The problem of power in economic science is considered in two directions. In economic theory, as Dementiev writes, controversial relation to the problem of power appeared. On the one side, there are economists, who include the power into the economic analysis subject and consider it as the factor, which affect the important influence to the economic life of society. On the other side, the economic concepts, which deny the significance of the concept of «power» for the economic analysis . In the opinion of A. Movsesian and A. Liebman theory of economic power generates two main directions. Some researchers have focused their attention on the influence of power factor for the efficiency of the economy. Others believe that economic power is the subject of economic theory .
Recently, the works of researchers such as Galbraith J.K., Ledyaiev V.G., Gugnyak V.Y., Oycken V., Takata Y., Toffler A., Perry F., Dementiev V.V., Movsesian A.G., Liebman A.M. and etc. who studied the economic problems of power, are devoted to the problem of economic power. Most of them point out to the insufficient attention to the study the problem of power.
In Kazakhstan the study of economic power is connected with works of Kubaev K.E. In his opinion, insufficient development of theory of the economic power is explained not by the ignorance of this problem by the economists, but by the non-recognition or misunderstanding of what the problem is outside the scope of research, that it is already relatively independent scientific discipline − the theory of economic systems in the broadest sense, and management theory, in a narrow understanding of the problem.
Different theories and schools consider and estimate the role and importance of power in the economic and social life. In classical political economy there is no problem of the economic power in the economic life. Galbraith J.K explains the reason for the absence of the economic power in the classics’ works by the following way: «for a long time, the authors of formal economic studies believed that those who are related to economic activities do not have any significant power ...» .
Since the power is one of the most important social institutions, the problem of power causes the particular interest in the traditional institutional theory. Systematic explanation of the phenomenon of power in economic life is shown in the works of Dementiev V. Describing the nature of power as a ratio that generates power from the world of social relations, Dementiev claimed that it is an interaction between agents in which the agent A (the subject of power) forces to bear the costs in favor of agent B (the object of power) ... The scope and reasonable form of issues of submission which the object of power is ready to carry in favor of its subject, describes the power measure of Agent A over Agent B .
The problem of power is investigated in theory of management. At the organization level in the theory of management the power is defined as the ability to influence on the behavior of people in the process of making business. And this power is divided into the power, which has the personal basis and the power, which has an organizational basis. The basis of power in the organization is the sources from which it arises. The power of example (charisma), the power of information, expert power are called the sources of personal power. Organizational power sources are the following: the right to make decision, coercion, control over resources, rewards and the power of connections.
On the basis of that, we offer the following areas of studying the power problem in the economy:
− the theory of the firm shall include the problem of power, which means to consider the organizational forms of the enterprise in terms of what kind of power structure the economic agents will generate, and how this structure will affect on the efficiency of decision-making;
− to improve the efficiency of the enterprise, as of special institute of economic power, it is necessary to systematize the research of power methodology in the economy.
− as a rule, power is a necessary condition for control of its major and operating force, so it is necessary to develop a mechanism of power for the implementation at the enterprise;
− and most importantly, as notices Rothschild K. the power has to become one of the main objects of study in economic science, both in theoretical and applied aspects.
The work was submitted to the International Scientific Conference «Economics and Management», Thailand, February, 19–27, 2014, сame to the editorial office on 05.12.2013.