We have done the analysis of the existing education system in Germany from the school (Abitur) to the University. The modern higher education in the form of three types of higher education institutions: universities, universities of applied science, higher art schools and conservatories. The scheme of options for obtaining a master’s degree as a core organizational structure of the national education system in Germany. Discloses the content of the preparation of masters on the example of the organization of the educational process at the Faculty of Engineering and Shipbuilding Engineering, University of Rostock. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia in the framework of the federal target program (Measure 1.5 of 17.09.2012 № 14.V37.21.1247).
1998 amendments to the Law on Higher Education in Germany gave universities the right to introduce new Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees. So since 2008 classical engineering education disappeared at the University of Rostock. One should study for a period of 6 to 8 semesters to receive the Bachelor Degree, for MA – 2 to 4 semesters. In the case both courses are sequential stages of a longer training program, their total duration shouldn’t exceed 10 semesters. New courses may substitute traditional ones or go in parallel with them, but additional state funds are not allocated to it . The main feature of training in Germany – the formation of the educational process is fully regulated by local laws of their Land, or area. There is no direct reporting to the Federal Education Institutes or the Ministry of Education. To enroll for the Bachelor degree one should provide school graduation certificate (abitury) and evidence of eight week long practical work in the company with the relevant profile . This allows the student not only to obtain an idea of the future profession, but also to master the first practical skills. If the applicant has completed secondary professional education he is waived of the practical work requirement. High school and some professional schools can issue abitury. Such schools train only the strong and talented students in the selected field. Modern higher education in Germany is represented by three types of higher education institutions, such as:
1. Universities that offer the full range of academic disciplines. Traditionally, it concerns the fundamental theoretical education, especially directed and focused on theoretical research.
2. Universities of Applied Sciences focused on engineering sciences and education in technical and economic areas, training social workers and designers. These universities are engaged in applied research and experimental development, with a clear practical stance. Education is professionally-oriented, education is harmonized and integrated with specific industrial enterprises and other specialized institutions.
3. Higher art schools and conservatories, which in their turn offer training programs for artistic activities in the visual arts, theater and music, in directing, production and screenwriter training for the theater, cinema and media, film and media technologies, especially in design, architecture and communication.
In all the three types of higher education training programs are designed so that the disciplines existing independently were gradually integrated into a logical sequence of step-by-step progress to the graduation essay that is subject to state inspection and certification, acting within the framework of the Bologna process since 1998. The first four semesters of bachelor are intended to study humanitarian and natural sciences and general professional disciplines. The next two semesters focus on the disciplines that address the practical professional problems. Education is divided into modules. Typically, modules are a group of subjects, similar in content taught in a close period of time. One module usually takes more than one semester. Each module ends with an examination. In each semester the student must score 30 points (credits ECTS ). Points are given only if the course is fully completed, satisfies to all requirements and examinations are passed successfully. And fairly lengthy series of lectures, workshops, intermediate coursework and exam allows a total score of 6 points. Total labor student per semester is 900 hours, including lectures, practice, and independent work. Selfstudying disciplines course given special attention. To be eligible for the exam, the student attendance at the lectures of the course is optional. It is mandatory that the presence of credited coursework assignments. Starting with the fifth semester of undergraduate programs of development, practice design work on aspects of the industry. The main idea is to teach people how to work in teams and to manage them. Students together in creative teams consisting of two or three or more people. The team selects a topic from a list proposed by the department. The group leader is chosen – the director of a small business – a self-regulatory body.
For example, at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Shipbuilding Engineering, University of Rostock is one of those developed in the spring semester of the project was formulated as «sustainable development winged». The nature of the anticipated massive experimental research in the wind tunnel study of aerodynamics on a computer using existing programs, geometric modeling using Autocad, Catia, ProEngineer, etc. The second important aspect of the project – its multidisciplinarity. Completion of the project involves public defense. In the fifth semester on the job training is the production (industrial) practice complexity equal to the six-point credit. The University is not engaged in the search for an internship companies. It is the task of the student. In the sixth semester student training schedule consists mainly of three lectures and parallel preparation of the final qualifying undergraduate work. Master study programs (master) are more focused on a variety of applications and differentiated research. On the ma-level sterskom the University are encouraged to study in a semester in a foreign university or specialized enterprises abroad. In most cases, mainly due to removal of language barriers, selectable near Scandinavian countries (excluding Finland), at least in France, Italy, USA. The decision on the recognition of test data from abroad, take the examination board of the faculty.
The core of the organizational structure the national education system in Germany
Each curriculum masters institutions rigidly fixed to a specific profile. Written graduation work, 900 hours of labor input, is included in the curriculum of the wizard. Educational programs of the second category (master) end with the possible assignment of the following degrees: Master of Arts, Master of Science, Master of Engineering, Master of Law, Master of Music. On the basis of curricula wizards that the content is not a direct continuation of the undergraduate curriculum, may be produced such levels of training, such as, MBA (Master of Business Administration) (see Figure). A distinctive feature of the educational system in Germany is to have an integrated «one-step» training monoprogramm that exist for either one or two major areas of undergraduate, or for one main and two additional areas of the Judiciary. Such a program can be called, educational platform, which lasts from 1,5 to 2 years and promotes deep orientation and the acquisition of fundamental knowledge.
The result at the end of training is to provide a written final work (deadline to 6 months) and interdisciplinary written and oral exams. Acquired qualification matches master (Master). The average period of study at the universities of integrated training programs for 5 to 6,5 years (master’s degree).
Obtained according to the traditions of the institution: legal, medical, pharmaceutical and teaching, confirmed the state inspection certificates to master academic skills are equal and form a formal prerequisite to obtaining a doctorate. In this case, when it comes to specialized higher education institutions (higher education), the average period of training in them is on integrated curriculum 4 years with a diploma of higher education, but the holders of such certificates of special higher education institutions do not have the right to receive a doctorate. These graduates are eligible for admission to the doctoral candidate’s degree in eligible institutions of higher education, passing on additional educational training (including the master) university program. In education in the higher art schools and conservatories, depending on the relevant specialty and individual target setting, along with a master’s degree, if any certified integrated curriculum, based on the final examinations for special and professional goals may be issued certificate. Continuity of student transition from the previous level of education diploma to follow often require entrance exams, and is determined necessarily corresponding minimum required size and content of the previously studied educational courses that form the core skills first class required to go in the second. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia in the framework of the federal target program (Measure 1.5 of 17.09.2012 № 14.V 37.21.1247).
The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference «Modern sociology and education», London, October, 19-26, 2013, came to the editorial office оn 21.10.2013.
Библиографическая ссылкаCherunova I.V., Kolesnik S.A., Kornev N.V. DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATION PROCESSES OF IMPLEMENTATION EDUCATIONAL MODELS IN UNIVERSITIES IN RUSSIA AND EUROPE // Международный журнал экспериментального образования. – 2014. – № 2. – С. 13-15;
URL: https://expeducation.ru/ru/article/view?id=4605 (дата обращения: 06.12.2021).