Научный журнал
Международный журнал экспериментального образования
ISSN 2618–7159
ИФ РИНЦ = 0,839

CAREER ORIENTATIONs OF students and lecturers: Prelimenary survey

Shchelokova E.G. 1
1 South Ural State University
1. Lazorak O.V. Analysis of significant distinctions of personal qualities of university students in the course of formation of life-sense orientations. Vestnik of the university (State university of management). – M.: SUM, 2011. – № 21. – Р. 63–65.
2. Maslow, A. Motivation and personality. – New York: Harper & Row, 1954. – 411 p.
3. Schein, Edgar H. Career Anchors: Participant Workbook (Pfeiffer Essential Resources for Training and HR Professionals). 2006.
4. Shchelokova E.G. Value-semantic content of the career orientation: the thesis of Candidate of Psychology. – Chelyabinsk, 2012. – 243 p.
5. Yashchenko E.F. Self-actualization and subjective well-being as a socio-psychological problems of professional education: students and lecturers of university // Journal of SUSU, series «Psychology». – Chelyabinsk, 2012. – № 31(290). – Р. 56–63.

The article contains general concepts of the career orientation proving the validity to the study of the content of the value system. It describes the guiding career orientations (Management, Entrepreneurship, Dedication to a cause, Professional competence), and the career vectors («Career up», «Career into») and their value content among the students and lecturers being the subjects of the system of higher education.

Modern social and cultural environment demands from a person who is the subject of professional activity not only specific competencies, but also the ability to realize their professional and career development. This ability helps the person to plan and to build his own life deliberately and efficiently without «making any drafts», to experience the subjective well-being and to self-actualize (Yashchenko, 2012). This is of the specific importance for the students who choose the certain area of professional training, the strategy of professional development and possible future career options (Lazorak, 2011). The career orientation which includes professional self-evaluation, motives and values plays a significant part in this process (Schein, 2006).

The study was carried out to consider the value content of career orientation in the system of higher education. The first purpose of the present study was to determine the preference in career orientation of modern Russian students (n = 673) and lecturers (n = 38). Figure 1 shows the average values (in the stanine) of career orientations of students and lecturers. All of the career orientations are equally preferable for students (4–5 stanine). The lecturers showed a low average score on the value of «Management» (2 stanine), other career orientations are equally preferable (4–5 stanine). In the group of students the difference in preference of various career vectors is insignificant (1 stanine), but in a group of lecturers this difference becomes significant (4 stanine): the vector «Career into» is more preferable (see Figure). Apparently, the students are still looking for professional development strategy, while the lecturers are experienced professionals who clearly understand the direction of their career development.

Table shows the distribution of respondents (students and lecturers) with high, medium and low levels of career orientations. Every fifth student has a high level of prominence in one or more career orientations, every third lecturer has a high level prominence in the career orientation «career into» («Dedication to a cause» and/or «Professional competence»), and only 8 % of lecturers focus on «Management» and/or «Entrepreneurship». This tendency shows the following: among the students there are more respondents focused on vertical career line («Career up»), among the lecturers there are more respondents with a focus on the horizontal career line («Career into»). Possibly people with the desire to vocational and personal growth, and professional mastership (as lecturers) and people with career ambitions and the desire of promotion in social professional hierarchy (as students) come to the system of higher education.

The second purpose was to detect the relations between different career orientations and personal values of students and lecturers. Preliminary survey in the group of lecturers showed that the career orientation «Management» is positively correlated with the value «social interaction» (p ≤ 0,05) and with the sphere of physical activity (p ≤ 0,05). The value of creativity has a positive correlation with the orientation «Dedication to a cause» (p ≤ 0,05) and a negative correlation with the orientation «Entrepreneurship» (p ≤ 0,05). In addition, the orientation «Dedication to a cause» has a negative correlation with the value of the material provisions (p ≤ 0,05), and the orientation «Professional competence» has a negative correlation with the sphere of family life (p ≤ 0,05), i.e. the career development on the type «Deep into» does not provide a realization of material and affiliation needs, which are considered the basic according to A. Maslow (1954). However, as it was indicated above (see Figure and Table), the orientation «Career into» is the dominant orientation for lecturers. It may show the crisis of professional development for some Russian lecturers in modern social and cultural environment.

pic_10.tif

The average values (in the stanine) of career orientations of students and lecturers

The classification of respondents (students and lecturers) with high, medium and low levels of career orientations

Level

Management

Entrepreneur ship

Dedication to a cause

Professional competence

Career up

Career into

General career orientation

Students

High

17,24 %

19,61 %

19,76 %

22,59 %

21,40 %

17,38 %

22,29 %

Medium

54,83 %

52,01 %

56,46 %

57,21 %

49,03 %

60,92 %

54,09 %

Low

27,79 %

27,64 %

22,88 %

19,91 %

29,57 %

21,69 %

23,63 %

Lecturers

High

7,89 %

7,89 %

31,58 %

28,95 %

5,26 %

26,32 %

5,26 %

Medium

23,68 %

39,47 %

57,89 %

63,16 %

34,21 %

68,42 %

65,79 %

Low

68,42 %

52,63 %

10,53 %

7,89 %

55,26 %

5,26 %

28,95 %

Based on the results of correlation analysis in the students sample the values were defined that are most strongly associated with the career orientation «Management»: material provisions (r = 0,386; p ≤ 0,001), achievement of the goals (r = 0,351; p ≤ 0,001), prestige (r = 0,285; p ≤ 0,001). The same values are most closely correlated with the career orientation «Entrepreneurship»: material provisions (r = 0,308; p ≤ 0,001), prestige (r = 0,260; p ≤ 0,001) and achievement of the goals (r = 0,239; p ≤ 0,001). The prevalence of social and pragmatic values of students with career orientations «Management» and «Entrepreneurship» which form the career vector «Career up» shows their commitment to the high level of material prosperity and their belief that material wealth is the main condition of life success and high self-esteem.

Other data was obtained by identifying the priority values that are correlated with career vector «Career into»: the values that are most strongly associated with the career orientation «Dedication to a cause» are creativity (r = 0,509; p ≤ 0,001), mental satisfaction (r = 0,351; p ≤ 0,001), self-development (r = 0,255; p ≤ 0,001); the values that are most strongly associated with the career orientation «Professional competence» are creativity (r = 0,245; p ≤ 0,001), self-development (r = 0,219; p ≤ 0,001), achievement of the goals (r = 0,183; p ≤ 0,001). The predominance of religious and moral values of students with career orientations «Dedication to a cause» and «Professional competence» shows their desire for self-development, creative achievements in professional activity and realization of their personal and professional potential. Thus, the value priorities of the students with the career orientation «Career up» are the social and pragmatic values (material status, prestige, achievement), and the priorities of the students with the career orientation «Career into» are mental and moral values (self-development, mental satisfaction, creativity) (Shchelokova, 2012).

In this way the preliminary survey showed that the Russian students as a social group are equally focused on the different directions of the career development (Management, Entrepreneurship, Dedication to a cause, Professional competence). In further research we’ll describe the differences in the career preferences of the students depending on the type of their professional qualification (technical, humanitarian, economic). The dominant career orientations of lecturers – «Dedication to a cause» and «Professional competence» correspond to the professional context of the higher education system, but they do not provide a realization of the basic material needs. Career orientation is closely connected with the sphere of values of a person and specific values different for various types of career orientations («Career into» – mental and moral values, «Career up» – social and pragmatic values).

The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference «Modern sociology and education», London, October, 19–26, 2013, came to the editorial office оn 09.10.2013.


Библиографическая ссылка

Shchelokova E.G. CAREER ORIENTATIONs OF students and lecturers: Prelimenary survey // Международный журнал экспериментального образования. – 2014. – № 2. – С. 26-28;
URL: https://expeducation.ru/ru/article/view?id=4612 (дата обращения: 28.09.2021).

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